Cite this paper:
Qian XIN, Min HUI, Chaolun LI, Zhongli SHA. Eyes of differing colors in Alvinocaris longirostris from deep-sea chemosynthetic ecosystems: genetic and molecular evidence of its formation mechanism[J]. Journal of Oceanology and Limnology, 2021, 39(1): 282-296

Eyes of differing colors in Alvinocaris longirostris from deep-sea chemosynthetic ecosystems: genetic and molecular evidence of its formation mechanism

Qian XIN1,2,4, Min HUI1,2, Chaolun LI1,2,3, Zhongli SHA1,2,3
1 Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;
2 Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;
3 Laboratory for Marine Biology and Biotechnology, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266237, China;
4 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Coloration is an important phenotypic trait for multiple adaptive functions. It is interesting to find white-eye (AW) and orange-eye (AO) phenotypes in the shrimp Alvinocaris longirostris inhabiting the deep-sea cold seep and hydrothermal vent areas of the northwestern Pacific. By comparative transcriptome analyses, 1 491 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between AW and AO. Among them, many DEGs were associated with immunity, antioxidation, and detoxification. Two significant enzyme encoding genes, xanthine dehydrogenase, and tryptophan oxidase involved in pigment biosynthesis pathways were up-regulated in AW and AO, respectively, which might be related to the differences of white and orange eye phenotypes. Moreover, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) calling detected that genotypes of 28 SNP distributing in 14 unigenes were completely different between AW and AO. Particularly, there were three and two non-synonymous mutations in immune genes crustin Pm5 and antimicrobial peptide, respectively. Results indicate that the difference in eye color is probably resulted from immune response to variable micro-environmental stressors encountered in the dispersal process of the shrimps, such as symbiotic microbes, pathogens, and toxic substances, and might be genetically fixed at last. The suggested pathway preliminarily explained the formation mechanism of different eye phenotypes in Alvinocaridid shrimps, providing a basis for further study on adaptive evolution of eyes in deep-sea chemosynthetic faunas.
Key words:    alvinocaridid shrimps|cold seep and hydrothermal vent|differentially expressed genes|eye color|single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutation|transcriptome   
Received: 2019-12-03   Revised: 2020-02-29
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