Cite this paper:
ZHAN Ruifen, CHEN Baode, DING Yihui. Impacts of SST anomalies in the Indian-Pacific basin on Northwest Pacific tropical cyclone activities during three super El Niño years[J]. HaiyangYuHuZhao, 2018, 36(1): 20-32

Impacts of SST anomalies in the Indian-Pacific basin on Northwest Pacific tropical cyclone activities during three super El Niño years

ZHAN Ruifen1, CHEN Baode1, DING Yihui2
1 Shanghai Typhoon Institute of China Meteorological Administration, Shanghai 200030, China;
2 National Climate Center and Laboratory for Climate Studies, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing 100081, China
Abstract:
This study investigated the impact of sea surface temperature (SST) in several important areas of the Indian-Pacific basin on tropical cyclone (TC) activity over the western North Pacific (WNP) during the developing years of three super El Niño events (1982, 1997, and 2015) based on observations and numerical simulations. During the super El Niño years, TC intensity was enhanced considerably, TC days increased, TC tracks mostly recurved along the coasts, and fewer TCs made landfall in China. These characteristics are similar to the strong ENSO-TC relationship but further above the climatological means than in strong El Niño years. It indicates that super El Niño events play a dominant role in the intensities and tracks of WNP TCs. However, there were clear differences in both numbers and positions of TC genesis among the different super El Niño years. These features could be attributed to the collective impact of SST anomalies (SSTAs) in the tropical central-eastern Pacific and East Indian Ocean (EIO) and the SST gradient (SSTG) between the southwestern Pacific and the western Pacific warm pool. During 2015, the EIO SSTA was extremely warm and the anomalous anticyclone in the western WNP was enhanced, resulting in fewer TCs than normal. In 1982, the EIO SSTA and spring SSTG showed negative anomalies, followed by an increased anomalous cyclone in the western WNP and equatorial vertical wind shear. This intensified the conversion of eddy kinetic energy from large-scale flows, favorable for the westward shift of TC genesis. Consequently, anomalous TC activities during the super El Niño years resulted mainly from combined SSTA impacts of different key areas over the Indian-Pacific basin.
Key words:    tropical cyclone (TC)|super El Niño|Indian-Pacific basin   
Received: 2016-11-29   Revised: 2017-02-14
Tools
PDF (1298 KB) Free
Print this page
Add to favorites
Email this article to others
Authors
Articles by ZHAN Ruifen
Articles by CHEN Baode
Articles by DING Yihui
References:
Bell G D, Halpert M S, Schnell R C, Higgins R W, Lawrimore J, Kousky V E, Tinker R, Thiaw W, Chelliah M, Artusa A. 2000. Climate assessment for 1999. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 81(6):S1-S50, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(2000)81[s1:CAF]2.0.CO;2.
Camargo S J, Emanuel K A, Sobel A H. 2007. Use of a genesis potential index to diagnose ENSO effects on tropical cyclone genesis. J. Climate, 20(19):4 819-4 834, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI4282.1.
Chan J C L. 2000. Tropical cyclone activity over the western North Pacific associated with El Niño and La Nina events. J. Climate, 13(16):2 960-2 972, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2000)013<2960:TCAOTW>2.0.CO;2.
Chen G H, Huang R H. 2008. Influence of monsoon over the warm pool on interannual variation of tropical cyclone activity over the western North Pacific. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 25(2):319-328.
Chen L S, Ding Y H. 1979. An Introduction to Typhoons over Northwest Pacific. Science Press, Beijing, China. p.1-10.(in Chinese)
Du Y, Yang L, Xie S P. 2011. Tropical Indian Ocean influence on Northwest Pacific tropical cyclones in summer following strong El Niño. J. Climate, 24(1):315-322, https://doi.org/10.1175/2010JCLI3890.1.
Emanuel K. 2005. Increasing destructiveness of tropical cyclones over the past 30 years. Nature, 436(7051):686-688, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature03906.
Huo L W, Guo P W, Hameed S N, Jin D C. 2015. The role of tropical Atlantic SST anomalies in modulating western North Pacific tropical cyclone genesis. Geophys. Res. Lett., 42(7):2 378-2 384, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015GL063184.
Kalnay E, Kanamitsu M, Kistler R et al. 1996. The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77(3):437-471, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1996)077<0437:TNYRP>2.0.CO;2.
Kossin J P, Emanuel K A, Vecchi G A. 2014. The poleward migration of the location of tropical cyclone maximum intensity. Nature, 509(7500):349-352, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature13278.
Lander M A. 1994. An exploratory analysis of the relationship between tropical storm formation in the Western North Pacific and ENSO. Mon. Wea. Rev., 122(4):636-651, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1994)122<0636:AEA OTR>2.0.CO;2.
Maloney E D, Hartmann D L. 2001. The Madden-Julian oscillation, barotropic dynamics, and north Pacific tropical cyclone formation. Part I:observations. J. Atmos. Sci., 58(17):2 545-2 558, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(2001)058<2545:TMJOBD>2.0.CO;2.
Nordeng T E. 1994. Extended versions of the convective parameterization scheme at ECMWF and their impact on the mean and transient activity of the model in the Tropics. Research Dept. Tech. Memo. No. 206. United Kingdom:ECMWF.
Rauthe M, Paeth H. 2004. Relative importance of Northern Hemisphere circulation modes in predicting regional climate change. J. Climate, 17(21):4 180-4 189, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI3140.1.
Roeckner E K, Arpe K, Bengtsson L, Christoph M, Claussen M, Dümenil L, Esch M, Giorgetta M, Schlese U, Schulzweida U. 1996. The atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM-4:model description and simulation of present-day climate. MPI Report 218. Hamburg, Germany:MPI.
Shapiro L J. 1978. The vorticity budget of a composite African tropical wave disturbance. Mon. Wea. Rev., 106(6):806-817.
Smith T M, Reynolds R W. 2004. Improved extended reconstruction of SST (1854-1997). J. Climate, 17(12):2 466-2 477, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2004)017<2466:IEROS>2.0.CO;2.
Stein U, Alpert P. 1993. Factor separation in numerical simulations. J. Atmos. Sci., 50(14):2 107-2 115, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1993)050<2107:FSINS>2.0.CO;2.
Tao L, Cheng S C. 2012. Impact of Indian Ocean basin warming and ENSO on tropical cyclone activities over the western Pacific. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 36(6):1 223-1 235. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Tiedtke M. 1989. A comprehensive mass flux scheme for cumulus parameterization in large-scale models. Mon. Wea. Rev., 117(8):1 779-1 800.
Wang B, Chan J C L. 2002. How strong ENSO events affect tropical storm activity over the western North Pacific. J. Climate, 15:1 643-1 658, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2002)015<1643:HSEEAT>2.0.CO;2.
Webster P J, Holland G J, Curry J A, Chang H R. 2005. Changes in tropical cyclone number, duration, and intensity in a warming environment. Science, 309(5742):1 844-1 846, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1116448.
Ying M, Zhang W, Yu H, Lu X, Feng J, Fan Y, Zhu Y, Chen D. 2014. An overview of the China Meteorological Administration tropical cyclone database. J. Atmos. Oceanic Chnol., 31(2):287-301, https://doi.org/10.1175/JTECH-D-12-00119.1.
Zhan R F, Wang Y Q, Lei X T. 2011a. Contributions of ENSO and East Indian Ocean SSTA to the interannual variability of Northwest Pacific tropical cyclone frequency. J. Climate, 24(2):509-521, https://doi.org/10.1175/2010JCLI3808.1.
Zhan R F, Wang Y Q, Wen M. 2013. The SST gradient between the southwestern Pacific and the Western Pacific warm pool:a new factor controlling the northwestern Pacific tropical cyclone genesis frequency. J. Climate, 26(7):2 408-2 415, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00798.1.
Zhan R F, Wang Y Q, Wu C C. 2011b. Impact of SSTA in the East Indian Ocean on the frequency of Northwest Pacific tropical cyclones:a regional atmospheric model study. J. Climate, 24(23):6 227-6 242, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-10-05014.1.
Zhan R F, Wang Y Q. 2016. CFSv2-based statistical prediction for seasonal accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) over the Western North Pacific. J. Climate, 29(2):525-541, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0059.1.