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YANG Aoao, HU Zhangxi, TANG Yingzhong. Solid sand particle addition can enhance the production of resting cysts in dinoflagellates[J]. HaiyangYuHuZhao, 2018, 36(2): 273-280

Solid sand particle addition can enhance the production of resting cysts in dinoflagellates

YANG Aoao1,2, HU Zhangxi1, TANG Yingzhong1,3
1 CAS Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;
2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;
3 Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Science, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266071, China
Resting cysts are an important part of the life cycle for many harmful algal bloom-forming dinoflagellates, and play vital roles in the recurrence and geographical spread of harmful algal blooms. Numerous factors have been suggested to regulate the formation of resting cysts, although only a few have been proven to be significant. Cyst formation can be induced by adverse environmental conditions such as drastic changes in temperature, light, salinity, and nutrient levels, and by biological interactions. In this study, we evaluated the ability of an artificial factor (fine sand particles) to enhance the formation of resting cysts. Fine sand particles were added to cultures of dinoflagellates that are known to produce cysts. The addition of fine sand particles significantly increased both the production rate and final yield of cysts in cultures of Scrippsiella trochoidea, Biecheleria brevisulcata, and Levanderina fissa (=Gymnodinium fissum, Gyrodinium instriatum, Gyrodinium uncatenum). The largest increase in the final yield (107-fold) of cysts as a result of sand addition was in S. trochoidea. However, addition of fine sand particles did not induce cyst formation, or barely affected cyst formation, in Akashiwo sanguinea, Cochlodinium polykrikoides and Pheopolykrikos hartmannii, which are also known to be cyst-producing species. We speculated that addition of sand significantly increased the chances of cell collision, which triggered cyst formation. However, further research is required to test this idea. Importantly, our findings indicate that the addition of fine sand particles is a useful method to obtain a large quantity of cysts in a short time for laboratory studies or tests; for example, if a cyst viability test is being used to assess the effectiveness of ships' ballast water treatment.
Key words:    sand|resting cyst|encystment|Scrippsiella trochoidea|Biecheleria brevisulcata|Levanderina fissa   
Received: 2016-10-26   Revised:
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