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JIN Yue, LIU Bilin, CHEN Xinjun, Kevin STAPLES. Morphological beak differences of loliginid squid, Uroteuthis chinensis and Uroteuthis edulis, in the northern South China Sea[J]. HaiyangYuHuZhao, 2018, 36(2): 559-571

Morphological beak differences of loliginid squid, Uroteuthis chinensis and Uroteuthis edulis, in the northern South China Sea

JIN Yue1, LIU Bilin1,2,3,5, CHEN Xinjun1,2,3,5, Kevin STAPLES4,1
1 College of Marine Sciences, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306, China;
2 National Distant-water Fisheries Engineering Research Center, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306, China;
3 The Key Laboratory of Sustainable Exploitation of Oceanic Fisheries Resources, Ministry of Education, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306, China;
4 School of Marine Sciences, University of Maine, Orono, Maine 04469, USA;
5 Collaborative Innovation Center for National Distant-water Fisheries, Shanghai 201306, China
The mitre squid (Uroteuthis chinensis) and the swordtip squid (U. edulis) are Indo-Pacific cephalopod species that are abundant in the western Pacific Ocean. They are currently exploited in the East and South China Seas and make up a significant portion of the Chinese neritic squid catch. Beaks, the feeding organs of squid, are important for individual size and biomass estimation because of their high resistance to degradation in predator stomachs and consistent dimensions. In this study, 104 U. chinensis and 143 U. edulis individuals were sampled from northern South China Sea with mantle length from 70 to 260 mm and 96 to 284 mm, respectively. The results indicated that morphological beak values were greater for U.edulis, compared to U. chinensis, for upper hood length (UHL), upper crest length (UCL), upper lateral wall length (ULWL), lower crest length (LCL), and lower lateral wall length (LLWL). According to principal component analysis, UHL/ML, UCL/ML, ULWL/ML, LCL/ML, LLWL/ML and LWL/ML could represent the characteristics of beaks for U. chinensis, while UHL/ML, UCL/ML, ULWL/ML, LHL/ML, LCL/ML and LLWL/ML could represent it for U. edulis. According to Akaike's information criterion (AIC) values, a power function was the most suitable model for U. chinensis, while a linear function was the most suitable model for U. edulis. The beak variable-mantle length ratio (beak variable/mantle length) declined with the increasing of mantle length and declined sharply at the early stage of growth in both beaks and species. The ratio changed quickly after achieving the mantle length of 140 mm for U. chinensis, while the ratio changed quickly after 170 mm for U. edulis. Beaks in both species experienced sharper changes through maturity stage I to Ⅱ than other maturity stages. This study gives us basic beak morphology information for U. chinensis and U. edulis in the East and South China Seas. Geometric morphological methods combined with dietary analysis should be used in the future.
Key words:    beak|morphology|Uroteuthis chinensis|Uroteuthis edulis|northern South China Sea   
Received: 2016-11-08   Revised:
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