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WU Renxie, ZHANG Haoran, LIU Jing, NIU Sufang, XIAO Yao, CHEN Yongxia. DNA barcoding of the family Sparidae along the coast of China and revelation of potential cryptic diversity in the IndoWest Pacific oceans based on COI and 16S rRNA genes[J]. Journal of Oceanology and Limnology, 2018, 36(5): 1753-1770

DNA barcoding of the family Sparidae along the coast of China and revelation of potential cryptic diversity in the IndoWest Pacific oceans based on COI and 16S rRNA genes

WU Renxie1, ZHANG Haoran1, LIU Jing2, NIU Sufang1, XIAO Yao1, CHEN Yongxia3
1 College of Fisheries, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang 524088, China;
2 Laboratory of Marine Organism Taxonomy and Phylogeny, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;
3 College of Life Sciences, Hebei University, Baoding 071002, China
Sparids are of considerable economic importance in marine fishery and aquaculture in China, and the species diversity of this group is considered relatively high. However, the accurate species identification and delimitation of sparids in China remain unaddressed. In this study, we used mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S ribosomal RNA (16S) genes to conduct DNA barcoding and species delimitation in eleven sparid species from the coastal waters of China. Based on Kimura-2 parameter genetic distances, the mean intraspecific/interspecific variation for COI and 16S were calculated as 0.004/0.152 and 0.002/0.072, respectively. All the conspecific individuals formed monophyletic clusters in neighbour-joining trees of both markers. An obvious barcoding gap was detected for each species, and a common genetic threshold of 1.3% sequence divergence was defined for species delimitation in both markers. Although the sequence variation of 16S was generally lower than that of COI, the results indicated that sparid species could be effectively and accurately identified and delimited by COI as well as 16S. Thus, we propose that the COI gene serve as the standard DNA barcode for sparids, and that the 16S gene could also be an ideal candidate barcode. Moreover, each of the six sparid species (Argyrops spinifer, Rhabdosargus sarba, Dentex hypselosomus, Acanthopagrus latus, Acanthopagrus australis and Acanthopagrus berda) showed high intraspecific divergence (>1.3% genetic threshold) with the remarkable geographic lineages in the Indo-West Pacific oceans, which supported that potential unrecognized cryptic species were in them. The potential cryptic diversity revealed here might be primarily attributed to the allopatric divergences caused by the long-term geographic isolation between the Indian and West Pacific oceans or between the opposite sides of the Indian Ocean. The results further suggest that a revision of taxonomic status of these species is required, followed by development of a biodiversity conservation strategy.
Key words:    S paridae|DNA barcoding|species delimitation|cryptic species|Chinese coast|Indo-West Pacific   
Received: 2017-07-26   Revised:
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