Cite this paper:
WANG Yunhe, BI Haibo, HUANG Haijun, LIU Yanxia, LIU Yilin, LIANG Xi, FU Min, ZHANG Zehua. Satellite-observed trends in the Arctic sea ice concentration for the period 1979-2016[J]. HaiyangYuHuZhao, 2019, 37(1): 18-37

Satellite-observed trends in the Arctic sea ice concentration for the period 1979-2016

WANG Yunhe1,2, BI Haibo1,3, HUANG Haijun1,2,3, LIU Yanxia1,3, LIU Yilin4, LIANG Xi5, FU Min5, ZHANG Zehua1,3
1 CAS Key Laboratory of Marine Geology and Environment, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;
2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;
3 Laboratory for Marine Geology, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266200, China;
4 College of Earth Science and Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, China;
5 Key Laboratory of Research on Marine Hazards Forecasting, National Marine Environmental Forecasting Center, Beijing 100081, China
Abstract:
Arctic sea ice cover has decreased dramatically over the last three decades. This study quantifies the sea ice concentration (SIC) trends in the Arctic Ocean over the period of 1979-2016 and analyzes their spatial and temporal variations. During each month the SIC trends are negative over the Arctic Ocean, wherein the largest (smallest) rate of decline found in September (March) is -0.48%/a (-0.10%/a). The summer (-0.42%/a) and autumn (-0.31%/a) seasons show faster decrease rates than those of winter (-0.12%/a) and spring (-0.20%/a) seasons. Regional variability is large in the annual SIC trend. The largest SIC trends are observed for the Kara (-0.60%/a) and Barents Seas (-0.54%/a), followed by the Chukchi Sea (-0.48%/a), East Siberian Sea (-0.43%/a), Laptev Sea (-0.38%/a), and Beaufort Sea (-0.36%/a). The annual SIC trend for the whole Arctic Ocean is -0.26%/a over the same period. Furthermore, the influences and feedbacks between the SIC and three climate indexes and three climatic parameters, including the Arctic Oscillation (AO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Dipole anomaly (DA), sea surface temperature (SST), surface air temperature (SAT), and surface wind (SW), are investigated. Statistically, sea ice provides memory for the Arctic climate system so that changes in SIC driven by the climate indices (AO, NAO and DA) can be felt during the ensuing seasons. Positive SST trends can cause greater SIC reductions, which is observed in the Greenland and Barents Seas during the autumn and winter. In contrast, the removal of sea ice (i.e., loss of the insulating layer) likely contributes to a colder sea surface (i.e., decreased SST), as is observed in northern Barents Sea. Decreasing SIC trends can lead to an in-phase enhancement of SAT, while SAT variations seem to have a lagged influence on SIC trends. SW plays an important role in the modulating SIC trends in two ways:by transporting moist and warm air that melts sea ice in peripheral seas (typically evident inthe Barents Sea) and by exporting sea ice out of the Arctic Ocean via passages into the Greenland and Barents Seas, including the Fram Strait, the passage between Svalbard and Franz Josef Land (S-FJL), and the passage between Franz Josef Land and Severnaya Zemlya (FJL-SZ).
Key words:    sea ice concentration (SIC)|Arctic Ocean|surface air temperature (SAT)|sea surface temperature (SST)|surface wind (SW)|interannual and decadal oscillation   
Received: 2017-10-11   Revised: 2017-11-28
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Articles by WANG Yunhe
Articles by BI Haibo
Articles by HUANG Haijun
Articles by LIU Yanxia
Articles by LIU Yilin
Articles by LIANG Xi
Articles by FU Min
Articles by ZHANG Zehua
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