Cite this paper:
RU Xiaoshang, ZHANG Libin, LI Xiaoni, LIU Shilin, YANG Hongsheng. Development strategies for the sea cucumber industry in China[J]. HaiyangYuHuZhao, 2019, 37(1): 300-312

Development strategies for the sea cucumber industry in China

RU Xiaoshang1,3, ZHANG Libin1,2, LI Xiaoni1,3, LIU Shilin1,2, YANG Hongsheng1,2
1 CAS Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;
2 Laboratory for Marine Ecology and Environmental Science, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266071, China;
3 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Abstract:
The sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, is an important marine aquaculture species in China. After nearly thirty years of development, the production of A. japonicus has become commercially lucrative and successful. In this report, current advances in sea cucumber industry are addressed in terms of the basic biology, culturing methods, and health care benefits. Next, the challenges restricting development of the sea cucumber industry are discussed, including weaknesses in the basic biological research, the problem of germplasm degradation, environmental stress caused by global climate change, and food safety problems. Finally, several strategies are presented that might contribute to sustainable development of the sea cucumber industry. These strategies include advances in genome studies, behavioral studies, selective breeding, ecological culture technologies, reforms in food safety management, and the development of health care functions based on contemporary medical practices. Thus, our work provides new insights into how to explore the sustainable development of the sea cucumber industry in the future.
Key words:    sea cucumber|Apostichopus japonicus|current situation|development strategy   
Received: 2017-11-21   Revised: 2018-01-04
Tools
PDF (2629 KB) Free
Print this page
Add to favorites
Email this article to others
Authors
Articles by RU Xiaoshang
Articles by ZHANG Libin
Articles by LI Xiaoni
Articles by LIU Shilin
Articles by YANG Hongsheng
References:
An Z H, Dong Y W, Dong S L. 2007. Temperature effects on growth-ration relationships of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka). Aquaculture, 272(1-4):644-648.
Bai Y C, Zhang L B, Liu S L, Ru X S, Xing L L, Cao X B, Zhang T, Yang H S. 2015. The effect of salinity on the growth, energy budget and physiological performance of green, white and purple color morphs of sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus. Aquaculture, 437:297-303.
Chang Y Q, Shi S B, Zhao C, Han Z H. 2011. Characteristics of papillae in wild, cultivated and hybrid sea cucumbers(Apostichopus japonicus). African Journal of Biotechnology, 10(63):13 780-13 788.
Chen M Y, Wang F Y, Xing K, Zhu A J, Zhang S S. 2015.Immunology and diseases. In:Yang H S, Hamel J F, Mercier A eds. The Sea Cucumber Apostichopus Japonicus:History, Biology and Aquaculture. Academic Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. p.257-287.
Fisheries and Fisheries Administration Bureau of the Ministry of Agriculture. 1998-2017. China Fisheries Yearbook.China Agriculture Press, Beijing, China. (in Chinese)
Han Q X, Keesing J K, Liu D Y. 2016. A review of sea cucumber aquaculture, ranching, and stock enhancement in China. Reviews in Fisheries Science & Aquaculture, 24(4):326-341.
He Z P, Wang X Y, Liu Y F, Liu Y H, Wang X. 2008. A high efficiency polyculture of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus with kuruma prawn Penaeus japonicus in pond.Fisheries Science, 27(12):665-667. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Hu M Y, Li Q, Kong L F, Li L. 2009. Comparative study on juvenile growth of hybrids between Chinese and Japanese stocks of sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus). Periodical of Ocean University of China, 39(S1):375-380. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Jo J, Oh J, Lee H G, Hong H H, Lee S G, Cheon S, Kern E M A, Jin S, Cho S J, Park J K, Park C. 2017. Draft genome of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus and genetic polymorphism among color variants. Giga Science, 6(1):1-6.
Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences of IOCAS. 2016. Information about fast-growth and heat-resistance strain of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. http://www.qdio.cas.cn/xwzx/kydt/201611/t20161116_4696970.html. Accessed on 2016-11-16. (in Chinese)
Li D T, Chang Y Q, Chen W, He Y M, Li Y, Zhong L, Zhang Y Y, Pan W. 2006. Analysis of nutritive composition of body wall in wild Apstichopus japonicus Selenka at Zhangzi Island. Journal of Dalian Fisheries University, 21(3):278-282. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Li L, Li Q. 2010. Effects of stocking density, temperature, and salinity on larval survival and growth of the red race of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka).Aquaculture International, 18(3):447-460.
Li X Q. 2013. Research on Crucial Indexes in Quality Evaluation of Several Stichopus Japonicus Products.Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China. p.7-8. (in Chinese)
Liang M, Dong S L, Gao Q F, Wang F, Tian X L. 2010.Individual variation in growth in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenck) housed individually.Journal of Ocean University of China, 9(3):291-296.
Liao Y L. 1997. Fauna Sinica. Science Press, Beijing, China. 334p. (in Chinese)
Lin C G, Zhang L B. 2015. Habitat enhancement and rehabilitation. In:Yang H S, Hamel J F, Mercier A eds.The Sea Cucumber Apostichopus Japonicus:History, Biology and Aquaculture. Academic Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. p.333-351.
Liu G B, Sun J C, Liu S L. 2015a. From fisheries toward aquaculture. In:Yang H S, Hamel J F, Mercier A eds. The Sea Cucumber Apostichopus Japonicus:History, Biology and Aquaculture. Academic Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. p.25-35.
Liu G B, Yang H S, Liu S L. 2010a. Effects of rearing temperature and density on growth, survival and development of sea cucumber larvae, Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka). Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology, 28(4):842-848.
Liu J X. 2015. Spatial distribution, population structures, management, and conservation. In:Yang H S, Hamel J F, Mercier A eds. The Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus:History, Biology and Aquaculture. Academic Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. p.77-86.
Liu Q, Cao R, Wang L Z, Yin B Z. 2010b. Effect of soaking parameters on dried sea cucumber processing.Innovational Edition of Farm Products Processing, (11):46-48, 70. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Liu S L, Sun J C, Ru X S, Hamel J F, Mercier A. 2015b.Broodstock conditioning and spawning. In:Yang H S, Hamel J F, Mercier A eds. The Sea Cucumber Apostichopus Japonicus:History, Biology and Aquaculture. Academic Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. p.101-108.
Liu T G, Zhao W, Guo K. 2011a. The research survey on toxicity and toxicology of toxicant in Apostichopus japonicus culture. Beijing Agriculture, (21):11-13. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Liu W, Chang Y Q, Ding J. 2013. A preliminary study of effects of mild and acute drop of temperature on serum nonspecific immunity in "Shuiyuan No.1" sea cucumber populations and the cultured sea cucumber populations.Journal of Fisheries of China, 37(9):1 342-1 348. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Liu X F, Xue C H, Wang Y M, Li H Y. 2011b. Comparative analysis of nutritive composition in body wall and internal organs of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) at Rushan. Journal of Fisheries of China, 35(4):587-593.(in Chinese with English abstract)
Liu Y, Dong S L, Tian X L, Wang F, Gao Q F. 2009. Effects of dietary sea mud and yellow soil on growth and energy budget of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus(Selenka). Aquaculture, 286(3-4):266-270.
Luo Y H, Chen J, Wang G M. 2014. Determination of illegal adding of industrial sodium hydroxide in sleeve-fish, sea cucumber and raw milk. Journal of Food Safety & Quality, 5(10):3 255-3 259. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Lv H, Zhou B W. 2005. Acute toxicity of four drugs to juvenile sea cucumber (Apostichpus japonicus). Fisheries Science, 24(6):28-31. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Mao Y Z, Huang Y, Liu Q. 2015. Processing and cuisine. In:Yang H S, Hamel J F, Mercier A eds. The Sea Cucumber Apostichopus Japonicus:History, Biology and Aquaculture. Academic Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. p.367-382.
Pan Y, Zhang L B, Lin C G, Sun J M, Kan R T, Yang H S. 2015.Influence of flow velocity on motor behavior of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. Physiology & Behavior, 144:52-59.
Pei S R, Dong S L, Wang F, Tian X L, Gao Q F. 2012. Effects of density on variation in individual growth and differentiation in endocrine response of Japanese sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus Selenka). Aquaculture, 356-357:398-403.
Qiu T L, Zhang L B, Zhang T, Bai Y C, Yang H S. 2014. Effect of culture methods on individual variation in the growth of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus within a cohort and family. Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology, 32(4):737-742.
Qiu T L, Zhang T, Hamel J F, Mercier A. 2015. Development, settlement, and post-settlement growth. In:Yang H S, Hamel J F, Mercier A eds. The Sea cucumber Apostichopus Japonicus:History, Biology and Aquaculture. Academic Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. p.111-131.
Ru X S, Gao T X, Liu S L, Song S L, Yang H S. 2015. Effects of temperature on digestive and metabolic enzymes activities of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus)brood-stock. Marine Sciences, 39(3):1-6. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Ru X S, Zhang L B, Liu S L, Sun J C, Yang H S. 2018. Energy budget adjustment of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus during breeding period. Aquaculture Research, 49(4):1 657-1 663, https://doi.org/10.1111/are.13621.
Ru X S, Zhang L B, Liu S L, Yang H S. 2017. Reproduction affects locomotor behaviour and muscle physiology in the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus. Animal Behaviour, 133:223-228.
Rural Economic Committee of Jinzhou. 2014. Information about "Shuiyuan No.1" in Jinzhou. http://jiuban.moa.gov.cn/fwllm/qgxxlb/ln/201406/t20140605_3926958.htm.Accessed on 2014-06-05. (in Chinese)
Sui X L, Chen Y, Hu Q M, Shang B L. 1985. Study of broodstock conditioning of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus. Fisheries Science, (3):28-31. (in Chinese)
Sun J M, Zhang L B, Pan Y, Lin C G, Wang F, Kan R T, Yang H S. 2015. Feeding behavior and digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. Physiology & Behavior, 139:336-343.
Sun L Y, Zhao Q, Ren L H, Wang Y T, Wang L, He J B. 2013.Crossing and offspring development of sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus between Chinese and Korean populations. Journal of Dalian Ocean University, 28(3):281-286. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Sun Y X, Li Y J, Wen Z X, Li X J, Shi L X, Xu Y P, Wang T T. 2009. Effects of dietary supplemented with Astragalus membranaceus and Astragalus polysaccharides on growth performance in sea cucumber. China Feed, (4):31-46. (in Chinese with English abstract)
The Xinhua News Agency. 2014. Antibiotics abusee in culturing of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus in Bohai gulf. Contemporary Animal Husbandry, 27(9):72.(in Chinese)
Wang L Z, Li X Q, Gu X H, Li Y, Zhu W J, Song C L, Yin B Z. 2013. A method for determination of exogenous total sugar in dried sea cucumber. Food Science, 34(14):293-297. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Wang Q, Zhang T, Hamel J F, Mercier A. 2015a. Reproductive biology. In:Yang H S, Hamel J F, Mercier A eds. The Sea Cucumber Apostichopus Japonicus:History, Biology and Aquaculture. Academic Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. p.87-100.
Wang T M, Sun L N, Chen M Y. 2015b. Aestivation and regeneration. In:Yang H S, Hamel J F, Mercier A eds. The Sea Cucumber Apostichopus Japonicus:History, Biology and Aquaculture. Academic Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. p.177-209.
Wang T T, Sun Y X, Jin L J, Xu Y P, Wang L, Ren T J, Wang K L. 2009. Enhancement of non-specific immune response in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) by Astragalus membranaceus and its polysaccharides. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 27(6):757-762.
Xia S D, Wang X Y. 2015. Nutritional and medicinal value. In:Yang H S, Hamel J F, Mercier A eds. The Sea Cucumber Apostichopus Japonicus:History, Biology and Aquaculture. Academic Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. p.353-365.
Xia S D, Yang H S, Li Y, Liu S L, Zhou Y, Zhang L B. 2012.Effects of different seaweed diets on growth, digestibility, and ammonia-nitrogen production of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka). Aquaculture, 338-341:304-308.
Xu D X, Sun L N, Liu S L, Zhang L B, Yang H S. 2014.Polymorphisms of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus and their association with heat-resistance. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 41(2):428-436.
Xu J, Wang Y M, Feng T Y, Zhang B, Sugawara T, Xue C H. 2011. Isolation and anti-fatty liver activity of a novel cerebroside from the sea cucumber Acaudina molpadioides. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, 75(8):1 466-1 471.
Yang G, Peng M, Tian X L, Dong S L. 2017. Molecular ecological network analysis reveals the effects of probiotics and florfenicol on intestinal microbiota homeostasis:an example of sea cucumber. Scientific Reports, 7(1):4 778.
Yang H S, Bai Y C. 2015. Apostichopus Japonicus in the life of chinese people. In:Yang H S, Hamel J F, Mercier A eds.The Sea Cucumber Apostichopus Japonicus:History, Biology and Aquaculture. Academic Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. p.1-23.
Yang H S, Yuan X T, Zhou Y, Mao Y Z, Zhang T, Liu Y. 2005.Effects of body size and water temperature on food consumption and growth in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) with special reference to aestivation.Aquaculture Research, 36(11):1 085-1 092.
Yang H S, Zhou Y, Zhang T, Yuan X T, Li X X, Liu Y, Zhang F S. 2006. Metabolic characteristics of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) during aestivation.Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 330(2):505-510.
Yang H S, Zhou Y, Zhang T. 2014. Biology of the Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus:Theory and Practice.Science Press, Beijing, China. p.1-11. (in Chinese)
Yang J M, Song Z L, Wang W J, Sun G H, Wang Z P, Sun Y J. 2015. Introduction of a new variety of sea cucumber "Kongtong Island No.1". China Fisheries, (12):55-57.(in Chinese)
Yuan X T, Shao S L, Dupont S, Meng L M, Liu Y J, Wang L J. 2015a. Impact of CO2-driven acidification on the development of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus(Selenka) (Echinodermata:Holothuroidea). Marine Pollution Bulletin, 95(1):195-199.
Yuan X T, Shao S L, Yang X L, Yang D Z, Xu Q Z, Zong H M, Liu S L. 2016. Bioenergetic trade-offs in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Echinodermata:Holothuroidea)in response to CO2-driven ocean acidification.Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 23(9):8 453-8 461.
Yuan X T, Yang H S, Wang L L, Zhou Y, Zhang T, Liu Y. 2007.Effects of aestivation on the energy budget of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka)(Echinodermata:Holothuroidea). Acta Ecologica Sinica, 27(8):3 155-3 161.
Yuan X T, Zhou Y, Mao Y Z. 2015b. Apostichopus Japonicus:a key species in integrated polyculture systems. In:Yang H S, Hamel J F, Mercier A eds. The Sea Cucumber Apostichopus Japonicus:History, Biology and Aquaculture. Academic Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. p.323-332.
Zamora L N, Yuan X T, Carton A G, Slater M J. 2018. Role of deposit-feeding sea cucumbers in integrated multitrophic aquaculture:progress, problems, potential and future challenges. Reviews in Aquaculture, 10(1):57-74, https://doi.org/10.1111/raq.12147.
Zhang L B, Song X Y, Hamel J F, Mercier A. 2015a.Aquaculture, stock enhancement, and restocking. In:Yang H S, Hamel J F, Mercier A eds. The Sea Cucumber Apostichopus Japonicus:History, Biology and Aquaculture. Academic Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. p.289-322.
Zhang L B, Yang H S, Xu Q, Xing K, Zhao P, Lin C G. 2011a.A new system for the culture and stock enhancement of sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka), in cofferdams. Aquaculture Research, 42(10):1 431-1 439.
Zhang L B, Zhang T, Xu Q Z, Qiu T L, Yang H S, Liu S L. 2015b. An artificial oyster-shell reef for the culture and stock enhancement of sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, in shallow seawater. Aquaculture Research, 46(9):2 260-2 269.
Zhang L L, Cao X B, Li J H, Liu J L, Hou M H, Zhou W J, Chang Y Q. 2013. Growth comparison of juvenile F1 Hybrids between Russia population and China population of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. Fisheries Science, 32(2):68-72. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Zhang P P, Li Q, Kong L F, Yu R H. 2011b. Effects of marine yeast (Rhodomonas sp.) and four different microalgal diets on larval growth and survival at metamorphosis in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. Periodical of Ocean University of China, 41(10):30-34. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Zhang P, Dong S L. 2013. Effect of light intensity on the growth and energy allocation of green and red variants of Apostichopus japonicas Selenka. Journal of Fishery Sciences of China, 20(4):778-784. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Zhang R, Chen H, Zhao J H, Guo J, Chen Z T. 2012. Evaluation of uncertainty in measurement of formaldehyde content in waterishlogged food products by spectrophotometer.Taiwan Agricultural Research, (5):73-77. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Zhang S C, Liu S L, Zhang L B, Ru X S, Yang H S. 2016.Effect of stocking density on key growth traits of a fastgrowing and heat-resistant strain of sea cucumber(Apostichopus japonicus). Aquaculture Research, 47(11):3 636-3 643.
Zhang W D, Yang Z Y, Yin X L, Pan L L. 2014a. Traceability system design for the quality and safety of sea cucumber products. Hubei Agricultural Sciences, 53(1):200-203.(in Chinese with English abstract)
Zhang X J, Sun L N, Yuan J B, Sun Y M, Gao Q, Zhang L B, Li S H, Dai H, Hamel J F, Liu C Z, Yu Y, Liu S L, Lin W C, Guo K M, Jin S J, Xu P, Storey K B, Huan P, Zhang T, Zhou Y, Zhang J Q, Lin C G, Li X N, Xing L L, Huo D, Sun M Z, Wang L, Mercier A, Li F H, Yang H S, Xiang J H. 2017. The sea cucumber genome provides insights into morphological evolution and visceral regeneration. PLoS Biology, 15(10):e2003790.
Zhang Y S, Dong S L, Wang F, Tian X L, Gao Q F. 2014b. The effects of light intensity and photoperiod on the growth, survival, development and metamorphosis of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) larvae. Transactions of Oceanology and Limnology, (1):36-41. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Zhao H. 2015. Taxonomy and identification. In:Yang H S, Hamel J F, Mercier A eds. The Sea Cucumber Apostichopus Japonicus:History, Biology and Aquaculture. Academic Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. p.37-52.
Zhao Q, Liu Z D, Xue Y, Wang J F, Li H, Tang Q J, Wang Y M, Dong P, Xue C H. 2011. Ds-echinoside A, a new triterpene glycoside derived from sea cucumber, exhibits antimetastatic activity via the inhibition of NF-κB-dependent MMP-9 and VEGF expressions. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B, 12(7):534-544.
Zhu B W, Zhao L L, Sun L M, Li D M, Murata Y, Yu L, Zhang L. 2008. Purification and characterization of a cathepsin L-like enzyme from the body wall of the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, 72(6):1 430-1 437.