Cite this paper:
ZUO Jiulong, SONG Jinming, YUAN Huamao, LI Xuegang, LI Ning, DUAN Liqin. Impact of Kuroshio on the dissolved oxygen in the East China Sea region[J]. HaiyangYuHuZhao, 2019, 37(2): 513-524

Impact of Kuroshio on the dissolved oxygen in the East China Sea region

ZUO Jiulong1,2,3,5, SONG Jinming1,2,3,4, YUAN Huamao1,2,3,4, LI Xuegang1,2,3,4, LI Ning1,2,3,4, DUAN Liqin1,2,3,4
1 Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;
2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;
3 Laboratory for Marine Ecology and Environmental Science, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266237, China;
4 Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;
5 Ocean College, Hebei Agricultural University, Qinhuangdao 066000, China
Abstract:
A marine survey was conducted from 18 May to 13 June 2014 in the East China Sea (ECS) and its adjacent Kuroshio Current to examine the spatial distribution and biogeochemical characteristics of dissolved oxygen (DO) in spring. Waters were sampled at 10-25 m intervals within 100 m depth, and at 25-500 m beyond 100 m. The depth, temperature, salinity, and density (sigma-t) were measured in situ with a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) sensor. DO concentrations were determined on board using traditional Winkler titration method. The results show that in the Kuroshio Current, DO content was the highest in the euphotic layer, then decreased sharply with depth to about 1 000 m, and increased with depth gradually thereafter. While in the ECS continental shelf area, DO content had high values in the coastal surface water and low values in the near-bottom water. In addition, a low-DO zone off the Changjiang (Yangtze) River estuary was found in spring 2014, and it was formed under the combined influence of many factors, including water stratification, high primary productivity in the euphotic layers, high accumulation/sedimentation of organic matter below the euphotic layers, and mixing/transport of oceanic current waters on the shelf. Most notable among these is the Kuroshio intruded water, an oceanic current water which carried rich dissolved oxygen onto the continental shelf and alleviated the oxygen deficit phenomenon in the ECS, could impact the position, range, and intensity, thus the formation/destruction of the ECS Hypoxia Zone.
Key words:    dissolved oxygen|hypoxia|Kuroshio intrusion|East China Sea   
Received: 2017-12-29   Revised: 2018-02-14
Tools
PDF (5045 KB) Free
Print this page
Add to favorites
Email this article to others
Authors
Articles by ZUO Jiulong
Articles by SONG Jinming
Articles by YUAN Huamao
Articles by LI Xuegang
Articles by LI Ning
Articles by DUAN Liqin
References:
Bryan J R, Rlley J P, Williams P J L. 1976. A Winkler procedure for making precise measurements of oxygen concentration for productivity and related studies. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 21(3):191-197.
Chen C C, Gong G C, Shiah F K. 2007. Hypoxia in the East China Sea:one of the largest coastal low-oxygen areas in the world. Marine Environmental Research, 64(4):399-408.
Chen C S, Zhu J R, Beardsley R C, Franks P J S. 2003. Physical-biological sources for dense algal blooms near the Changjiang River. Geophysical Research Letters, 30(10):1515.
Chen C T A, Ruo R, Paid S C, Liu C T, Wong G T F. 1995. Exchange of water masses between the East China Sea and the Kuroshio off northeastern Taiwan. Continental Shelf Research, 15(1):19-39.
Chen C T A. 1998. Response to Liu's comments on "The Kuroshio Intermediate Water is the major source of nutrients on the East China Sea continental shelf" by Chen (1996). Oceanologica Acta, 21(5):713-716.
Chen C T A. 2008. Distributions of nutrients in the East China Sea and the South China Sea connection. Journal of Oceanography, 64(5):737-751.
Chen C T A. 2009. Chemical and physical fronts in the Bohai, Yellow and East China seas. Journal of Marine Systems, 78(3):394-410.
Deutsch C, Emerson S, Thompson L. 2006. Physical-biological interactions in North Pacific oxygen variability. Journal of Geophysical Research:Oceans, 111(C9):C09S90.
Diaz R J, Rosenberg R. 1995. Marine benthic hypoxia:a review of its ecological effects and the behavioural responses of benthic macrofauna. Oceanography and Marine Biology:An Annual Review, 33:245-303.
Feely R A, Sabine C L, Hernandez-Ayon J M, Ianson D, Hales B. 2008. Evidence for upwelling of corrosive "acidified" water onto the continental shelf. Science, 320(5882):1 490-1 492.
Gao X L, Song J M. 2008. Dissolved oxygen and O2 flux across the water-air interface of the Changjiang Estuary in May 2003. Journal of Marine Systems, 74(1-2):343-350.
Gong G C, Wen Y H, Wang B W, Liu G J. 2003. Seasonal variation of chlorophyll a concentration, primary production and environmental conditions in the subtropical East China Sea. Deep-Sea Research Part ⅡTopical Studies in Oceanography, 50(6-7):1 219-1 236.
Guo S J, Feng Y Y, Wang L, Dai M H, Liu Z L, Bai Y, Sun J. 2014. Seasonal variation in the phytoplankton community of a continental-shelf sea:the East China Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 516:103-126.
Guo X Y, Zhu X H, Wu Q S, Huang D J. 2012. The Kuroshio nutrient stream and its temporal variation in the East China Sea. Journal of Geophysical Research:Oceans, 117(1):C01026.
Hung C C, Tseng C W, Gong G C, Chen K S, Chen M H, Hsu S C. 2013. Fluxes of particulate organic carbon in the East China Sea in summer. Biogeosciences, 10(10):6 469-6 484.
Ichikawa H, Chaen M. 2000. Seasonal variation of heat and freshwater transports by the Kuroshio in the East China Sea. Journal of Marine Systems, 24(1-2):119-129.
Kodama T, Setou T, Masujima M, Okazaki M, Ichikawa T. 2015. Intrusions of excess nitrate in the Kuroshio subsurface layer. Continental Shelf Research, 110:191-200.
Li D J, Zhang J, Huang D J, Wu Y, Liang J. 2002. Oxygen depletion off the Changjiang (Yangtze River) Estuary.Science in China Series D:Earth Sciences, 45(12):1 137-1 146.
Li H M, Tang H J, Shi X Y, Zhang C S, Wang X L. 2014. Increased nutrient loads from the Changjiang (Yangtze) River have led to increased Harmful Algal Blooms. Harmful Algae, 39:92-101.
Lin K, Chen Z S, Guo B H, Tang Y X. 1995. Seasonal transport and exchange between the Kuroshio water and shelf water. Journal of Oceanography of Huanghai & Bohai Seas, 13(4):1-8. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Liss P S, Merlivat L. 1986. Air-Sea gas exchange rates:introduction and Synthesis. In:Buat-Ménard P ed. The Role of Air-Sea Exchange in Geochemical Cycling.Springer, Dordrecht. p.113-127.
Liu K K, Tang T Y, Gong G C, Chen L Y, Shiah F K. 2000. Cross-shelf and along-shelf nutrient fluxes derived from flow fields and chemical hydrography observed in the southern East China Sea off northern Taiwan. Continental Shelf Research, 20(4-5):493-523.
Liu W, Song J M, Yuan H M, Li N, Li X G, Duan L Q. 2017. Dissolved barium as a tracer of Kuroshio incursion in the Kuroshio region east of Taiwan Island and the adjacent East China Sea. Science China Earth Sciences, 60(7):1 356-1 367.
Lu X, Song J M, Yuan H M, Li N, Li X G, Duan L Q, Qu B X. 2016. Distribution of inorganic carbon parameters in Kuroshio and its impact on adjacent East China Sea shelf.Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica, 47(1):16-28. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Lui H K, Chen C T A, Lee J, Bai Y, He X Q. 2014. Looming hypoxia on outer shelves caused by reduced ventilation in the open oceans:case study of the East China Sea. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 151:355-360.
Lui H K, Chen C T A, Lee J, Wang S L, Gong G C, Bai Y, He X Q. 2015. Acidifying intermediate water accelerates the acidification of seawater on shelves:an example of the East China Sea. Continental Shelf Research, 111:223-233.
Mostofa K M G, Liu C Q, Zhai W D, Minella M, Vione D, Gao K S, Minakata D, Arakaki T, Yoshioka T, Hayakawa K, Konohira E, Tanoue E, Akhand A, Chanda A, Wang B L, Sakugawa H. 2016. Reviews and Syntheses:ocean acidification and its potential impacts on marine ecosystems. Biogeosciences, 13(6):1 767-1 786.
Rabalais N N, Diaz R J, Levin L A, Turner R E, Gilbert D, Zhang J. 2010.Dynamics and distribution of natural and human-caused hypoxia. Biogeosciences, 7(2):585-619.
Rho T, Lee T, An S. 2016. Dissolved oxygen and nutrients. In:Chang K I, Zhang C I, Park C, Kang D J, Ju S J, Lee S H, Wimbush M eds. Oceanography of the East Sea (Japan Sea). Springer, Cham. p.149-168.
Riley J P, Skirrow G. 1975. Chemical Oceanography. 2nd edn.Academic Press, London.
Rovelli L, Dengler M, Schmidt M, Sommer S, Linke P, McGinnis D F. 2016. Thermocline mixing and vertical oxygen fluxes in the stratified central North Sea.Biogeosciences, 13(5):1 609-1 620.
Song J M, Zhan B Q, Li P C. 1996. Dissolved oxygen distribution and O2 fluxes across the sea-air interface in East China Sea waters. Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology, 14(4):297-302.
Song J M. 2010.Biogeochemical processes of the East China Sea. In:Song J M ed. Biogeochemical Processes of Biogenic Elements in China Marginal Seas. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberger. p.425-528.
Stigebrandt A. 1991. Computations of oxygen fluxes through the sea surface and the net production of organic matter with application to the Baltic and adjacent seas. Limnology and Oceanography, 36(3):444-454.
Stumm W, Morgan J J. 1996. Photochemical processes. In:Stumm W, Morgan J J eds. Aquatic Chemistry:Chemical Equilibria and Rates in Natural Waters. 3rd edn. Wiley, New York. p.726-759.
Suzuki R, Ishimaru T. 1990. An improved method for the determination of phytoplankton chlorophyll using N, N-dimethylformamide. Journal of the Oceanographical Society of Japan, 46(4):190-194.
Wang B D, Wei Q S, Chen J F, Xie L P. 2012. Annual cycle of hypoxia off the Changjiang (Yangtze River) Estuary.Marine Environmental Research, 77:1-5.
Wang B, Chen J F, Jin H Y, Li H L, Huang D J, Cai W J. 2017. Diatom bloom-derived bottom water hypoxia off the Changjiang estuary, with and without typhoon influence.Limnology and Oceanography, 62(4):1 552-1 569.
Wanninkhof R. 1992. Relationship between wind speed and gas exchange over the ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research:Oceans, 97(C5):7 373-7 382.
Wanninkhof R. 2014. Relationship between wind speed and gas exchange over the ocean revisited. Limnology and Oceanography:Methods, 12(6):351-362.
Wei H, He Y C, Li Q J, Liu Z Y, Wang H T. 2007. Summer hypoxia adjacent to the Changjiang Estuary. Journal of Marine Systems, 67(3-4):292-303.
Weiss R F. 1970. The solubility of nitrogen, oxygen and argon in water and seawater. Deep Sea Research and Oceanographic Abstracts, 17(4):721-735.
Wong G T F, Chao S Y, Li Y H, Shiah F K. 2000. The Kuroshio edge exchange processes (KEEP) study-an introduction to hypotheses and highlights. Continental Shelf Research, 20(4-5):335-347.
Xing L, Zhao M X, Zhang T, Yu M, Duan S S, Zhang R P, Huh C A, Liao W H, Feng X W. 2016. Ecosystem responses to anthropogenic and natural forcing over the last 100 years in the coastal areas of the East China Sea. The Holocene, 26(5):669-677.
Yang D Z, Yin B S, Sun J C, Zhang Y. 2013. Numerical study on the origins and the forcing mechanism of the phosphate in upwelling areas off the coast of Zhejiang province, China in summer. Journal of Marine Systems, 123-124:1-18.
Yuan D L, Hsueh Y. 2010.Dynamics of the cross-shelf circulation in the Yellow and East China Seas in winter.Deep Sea Research Part Ⅱ:Topical Studies in Oceanography, 57(19-20):1 745-1 761.
Zhang J, Gilbert D, Gooday A J, Levin L, Naqvi S W A, Middelburg J J, Scranton M, Ekau W, Peña A, Dewitte B, Oguz T, Monteiro P M S, Urban E, Rabalais N N, Ittekkot V, Kemp W M, Ulloa O, Elmgren R, Escobar-Briones E, Van Der Plas A K. 2010.Natural and human-induced hypoxia and consequences for coastal areas:synthesis and future development. Biogeosciences, 7(5):1 443-1 467.
Zhang J, Liu S M, Ren J L, Wu Y, Zhang G L. 2007. Nutrient gradients from the eutrophic Changjiang (Yangtze River)Estuary to the oligotrophic Kuroshio waters and reevaluation of budgets for the East China Sea Shelf.Progress in Oceanography, 74(4):449-478.
Zhou F, Xue H J, Huang D J, Xuan J L, Ni X B, Xiu P, Hao Q. 2015. Cross-shelf exchange in the shelf of the East China Sea. Journal of Geophysical Research:Oceans, 120(3):1 545-1 572.
Zhu J R, Zhu Z Y, Lin J, Wu H, Zhang J. 2016. Distribution of hypoxia and pycnocline off the Changjiang Estuary, China. Journal of Marine Systems, 154:28-40.
Zuo J L, Song J M, Yuan H M, Li X G, Li N, Duan L Q. 2016. Particulate nitrogen and phosphorus in the East China Sea and its adjacent Kuroshio waters and evaluation of budgets for the East China Sea Shelf. Continental Shelf Research, 131:1-11.