Cite this paper:
LI Li, LÜ Songhui, CEN Jingyi. Spatio-temporal variations of harmful algal blooms along the coast of Guangdong, Southern China during 1980-2016[J]. HaiyangYuHuZhao, 2019, 37(2): 535-551

Spatio-temporal variations of harmful algal blooms along the coast of Guangdong, Southern China during 1980-2016

LI Li1,2, LÜ Songhui1,2, CEN Jingyi1,2
1 College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China;
2 Key Laboratory of Eutrophication and Red Tide Prevention of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) have become a recurring problem, posing severe impacts on marine ecosystems, fisheries, mariculture industry, and even public health. In this study, the geographic information system (GIS) was utilized to determine spatial and temporal characteristics of HAB events in the coastal waters of Guangdong from 1980-2016. We analyzed distribution patterns and characteristics of HABs by dividing the coast of Guangdong into well-known bays, estuary and coastal waters. Results showed that there were a total of 337 HABs recorded in Guangdong coastal waters. Spatial and temporal distributions varied among different regions. Most HABs occurred in the Mirs Bay, followed by the west coast of Daya Bay, while a few occurred in the west and east coasts of Guangdong but with an increasing trend in the past two decades. HABs occurred mostly in warmer months of March to May in the western coast of Guangdong, March and April in Mirs Bay, April in Zhujiang (Pearl) River estuary, November in eastern coast of Guangdong. For Daya Bay, most HABs were reported between March and September. The most frequently occurring HABs species were Noctiluca scintillans, Phaeocystis globosa, Skeletonema costatum and Scrippsiella trochoidea, occurring mostly in Mirs Bay, western Guangdong coast area, eastern Guangdong coast area and Zhujiang River estuary and Daya Bay, respectively. Ichthyotoxic blooms were more common than toxic blooms, and Heterosigma akashiwo, Chattonella marina, Karenia mikimotoi and Phaeocystis globosa were the most common ichthyotoxic species. Our results provide baseline information useful for policy making and management of HABs in the region.
Key words:    harmful algal blooms|Guangdong Province|distribution|geographic information system (GIS)|kernel density estimation   
Received: 2018-04-17   Revised: 2018-06-12
PDF (3531 KB) Free
Print this page
Add to favorites
Email this article to others
Articles by LI Li
Articles by LÜ Songhui
Articles by CEN Jingyi
Anderson D M, Burkholder J M, Cochlan W P, Glibert P M, Gobler C J, Heil C A, Kudela R K, Parsons M L, Rensel J E J, Townsend D W, Trainer V L, Vargo G A. 2008. Harmful algal blooms and eutrophication:examining linkages from selected coastal regions of the United States. Harmful Algae, 8(1):39-53.
Arzul G, Gentien P, Crassous M P. 1994. A haemolytic test to assay toxins excreted by the marine dinoflagellate Gyrodinium, cf. Aureolum. Water Research, 28(4):961-965.
Chen J F, Xu N, Jiang T J, Wang Y, Wang Z H, Qi Y Z. 1999. A report of Phaeocystis globosa bloom in coastal water of Southeast China. Journal of Jinan University (Natural Science & Medicine Edition), 20(3):124-129. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Deng S, Liu X F, You D W, Tang C L. 2006. Five kinds of major marine disasters impacting on Guangdong Province during 1991-2005. Guangdong Meteorology, (4):19-22, 29. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Fisheries Bureau of Ministry of Agriculture. 2017. China Fishery Statistical Yearbook 2016. Agricultural Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
Furuya K, Glibert P M, Zhou M J, Raine R. 2010.Harmful Algal Blooms in Asia:a regional comparative programme.IOC and SCOR, Paris and Newark, Delaware.
Gatrell A C, Bailey T C, Diggle P J, Rowlingson B S. 1996. Spatial point pattern analysis and its application in geographical epidemiology. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 21(1):256-274.
Gentien P, Lunven M, Lazure P, Youenou A, Crassous M P. 2007. Motility and autotoxicity in Karenia mikimotoi(Dinophyceae). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 362(1487):1 937-1 946.
Hallegraeff G M. 1993. A review of harmful algal blooms and their apparent global increase. Phycologia, 32(2):79-99.
He J Y, Shi Z X, Zhang Y H, Liu Y D, Jiang T J, Yin Y W, Qi Y Z. 1999. Morphological characteristics and toxins of Phaeocystis cf. Pouchetii (Prymnesiophyceae).Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica, 30(2):172-179. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Huan Q L, Pang R S, Zhou Q L, Leng K M. 2016. Variation trends of nitrogen and phosphorus and the relationship with HABs in Shenzhen coastal waters. Marine Environmental Science, 35(6):908-914. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Huang C J, Qi Y Z, Huang Y H, Lin X T. 1997. The population ecology and causative mechanisms of red tide of Noctiluca Scintillans in Danpeng Bay, The South China Sea.Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica, 28(3):245-255. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Khan S, Arakawa O, Onoue Y. 1997. Neurotoxins in a toxic red tide of Heterosigma akashiwo (Raphidophyceae) in Kagoshima Bay, Japan. Aquaculture Research, 28(1):9-14.
Kuroda A, Nakashima T, Yamaguchi K, Oda T. 2005. Isolation and characterization of light-dependent hemolytic cytotoxin from harmful red tide phytoplankton Chattonella marina. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C:Toxicology and Pharmacology, 141(3):297-305.
Landsberg J H. 2002. The effects of harmful algal blooms on aquatic organisms. Reviews in Fisheries Science, 10(2):113-390.
Leng K M, Jiang T J. 2004. Analysis on characters of red tide in Shenzhen coastal waters during last more than 20 years.Ecologic Science, 23(2):166-170, 174. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Lewitus A J, Horner R A, Caron D A, Garcia-Mendoza E, Hickey B M, Hunter M, Huppert D D, Kudela R M, Langlois G W, Largier J L, Lessard E J, RaLonde R R, Jack Rensel J E, Strutton P G, Trainer V L, Tweddle J F. 2012. Harmful algal blooms along the North American west coast region:history, trends, causes, and impacts.Harmful Algae, 19(9):133-159.
Li Li, Lv S H. 2009. A 30-year retrospective analysis over the detrimental algal blooms in Guangdong coastal areas.Journal of Safety and Environment, 9(3):83-86. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Long H, Du Q. 2005. Primary research on Karenia mikimotoi bloom in Fujian coast. Journal of Fujian Fisheries, (4):22-26. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Marshall J A, Nichols P D, Hamilton B, Lewis R J, Hallegraeff G M. 2003. Ichthyotoxicity of Chattonella marina(Raphidophyceae) to damselfish (Acanthochromis polycanthus):the synergistic role of reactive oxygen species and free fatty acids. Harmful Algae, 2(4):273-281.
Medlin L K, Lange M L, Baumann M E M. 1994. Genetic differentiation among three colony-forming species of Phaeocystis:further evidence for the phylogeny of the Prymnesiophyta. Phycologia, 33(3):199-207.
Mohanty A K, Satpathy K K, Sahu G, Sasmal S K, Sahu B K, Panigrahy R C. 2007. Red tide of Noctiluca scintillans and its impact on the coastal water quality of the nearshore waters, off the Rushikulya river, bay of Bengal.Current Science, 93(5):616-618.
Mooney B D, Nichols P D, De Salas M F, Hallegraeff G M. 2007. Lipid, fatty acid, and sterol composition of eight species of Kareniaceae (Dinophyta):chemotaxonomy and putative lipid phycotoxins. Journal of Phycology, 43(1):101-111.
Oda T, Ishimatsu A, Takeshita S, Muramatsu T. 1994. Hydrogen peroxide production by the red-tide flagellate Chattonella marina. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, 58(5):957-958.
Ou L J, Zhang Y Y, Li Y, Wang H J, Xie X D, Rong Z M, Lv S H, Qi Y Z. 2010.The outbreak of Cochlodinium geminatum bloom in Zhuhai, Guangdong. Journal of Tropical Oceanography, 29(1):57-61. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Peng X C, Yang W D, Liu J S, Peng Z Y, Lu S H, Ding W Z. 2005. Characterization of the hemolytic properties of an extract from Phaeocystis globosa scherffel. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology, 47(2):165-171.
Qi Y Z, Chen J F, Wang Z H, Xu N, Wang Y, Shen P P, Lu S H, Hodgkiss I J. 2004. Some observations on Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) events along the coast of Guangdong, Southern China in 1998. Hydrobiologia, 512(1-3):209-214.
Qi Y Z, Chu J H, Huang Y H. 1993. Environmental element impact on triggering off Chattonella marina Bloom.Marine Science Bulletin, 12(2):30-34. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Qi Y Z, Hong Y, Lv S H, Zhang J P, Zhu C J, Li Y Q, Liang S. 1991. A new recorded red tide species in China:Chattonella Marina (Subrahamanyan) Hara et Chihara, its asset and limitation. Journal of Jinan University, 12(3):92-95. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Qian H L, Liang S, Qi Y Z. 2000. Study of the characteristics and the causes of formation on the red tides in coastal Guangdong sea. Ecological Science, 19(3):8-16. (in Chinese)
Satake M, Shoji M, Oshima Y, Naoki H, Fujita T, Yasumoto T. 2002. Gymnocin-A, a cytotoxic polyether from the notorious red tide dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium mikimotoi.Tetrahedron Letters, 43(33):5 829-5 832.
Shen M, Xu J L, Tsang T Y, Au D W T. 2010.Toxicity comparison between Chattonella marina and Karenia brevis using marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma):evidence against the suspected ichthyotoxins of Chattonella marina. Chemosphere, 80(5):585-591.
Shen P P, Li Y N, Qi Y Z, Zhang L P, Tan Y H, Huang L M. 2012. Morphology and bloom dynamics of Cochlodinium geminatum (schütt) schütt in the pearl river estuary, South China Sea. Harmful Algae, 13:10-19.
Shen P P, van Rijssel M, Wang Y, Lu S H, Chen J F, Qi Y Z. 2005. Toxic Phaeocystis globosa strains from China grow at remarkably high temperatures. In:Steidinger K A, Landsberg J H, Tomas C R, Vargo G A eds. Harmful Algae. Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Groningen. p.396-398.
SOA. 1991-1993. Bulletin of marine environmental Quality of China (1990-1992). SOA, Beijing. (in Chinese)
SOA. 1998. Bulletin of marine environmental Quality of China (1997). SOA, Beijing. (in Chinese)
SOA. 2001-2002. Bulletin of marine environmental quality of Shenzhen City (2000-2001). SOA, Beijing. (in Chinese)
SOA. 2001-2003. Bulletin of marine environmental Quality of China (2000-2002). SOA, Beijing. (in Chinese)SOA. 2007-2008. Bulletin of marine disaster of China (2006-2007). SOA, Beijing. (in Chinese)
SOA. 2002-2003. Bulletin of marine environmental quality of Guangdong Province (2001-2002). SOA, Beijing. (in Chinese)
SOA. 2005. Bulletin of marine environmental quality of Shenzhen City (2004). SOA, Beijing. (in Chinese)
SOA. 2006. Bulletin of marine environmental quality of Zhuhai City (2005). SOA, Beijing. (in Chinese)
SOA. 2006-2008. Bulletin of marine environmental quality of Guangdong Province (2005-2007). SOA, Beijing. (in Chinese)
SOA. 2007-2009. Bulletin of marine environmental quality of Shenzhen City (2006-2008). SOA, Beijing. (in Chinese)
SOA. 2008-2009. Bulletin of marine environmental quality of Shantou City (2007-2008). SOA, Beijing. (in Chinese)
SOA. 2009. Bulletin of marine environmental quality of Maoming City (2008). SOA, Beijing. (in Chinese)
SOA. 2010-2017. Bulletin of marine environmental quality of Guangdong Province (2009-2016). SOA, Beijing. (in Chinese)
Song N Q, Wang N, Lu Y, Zhang J R. 2016. Temporal and spatial characteristics of harmful algal blooms in the Bohai Sea during 1952-2014. Continental Shelf Research, 122:77-84.
Spencer J, Angeles G. 2007. Kernel density estimation as a technique for assessing availability of health services in Nicaragua. Health Services and Outcomes Research Methodology, 7(3-4):145-157.
Tong M M. 2006. Classification, grading and risk assessment system of harmful algal blooms in coastal China. Jinan University, Guangzhou. p.62-74. (in Chinese)
Twiner M J, Dixon S J, Trick C G. 2001. Toxic effects of Heterosigma akashiwo do not appear to be mediated by hydrogen peroxide. Limnology and Oceanography, 46(6):1 400-1 405.
Wang J H, Wu J Y. 2009. Occurrence and potential risks of harmful algal blooms in the East China Sea. Science of the Total Environment, 407(13):4 012-4 021.
Wang S F, Tang D L, He F L, Fukuyo Y, Azanza R V. 2008. Occurrences of harmful algal blooms (HABs) associated with ocean environments in the South China Sea.Hydrobiologia, 596(1):79-93.
Wang X D, Tang K W, Wang Y, Smith Jr W O. 2010.Temperature effects on growth, colony development and carbon partitioning in three phaeocystis species. Aquatic Biology, 9(3):239-249.
Wang Z H, Yin Y W, Qi Y Z, Xie L C, Jiang T J. 2001. Histopathological changes in fish gills during Gymnodinium mikimotoi red tide in Guishan Island area, the South China Sea. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 23(1):133-138. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Wu Z X, Yu Z M, Song X X, Yuan Y Q, Cao X H, Liang Y B. 2013. The spatial and temporal characteristics of harmful algal blooms in the southwest Bohai Sea. Continental Shelf Research, 59:10-17.
Xiao Y Z, Qi Y Z, Wang Z H, Lv S H. 2001. The relationship between Scrippsiella trochoidea Red tide and cysts in the Daya Bay. Marine Sciences, 25(9):50-54. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Xiao Y Z, Wang Z H, Chen J F, Lv S H, Qi Y Z. 2003. Seasonal dynamics of dinoflagellate cysts in sediments from Daya Bay, the South China Sea its relation to the bloom of Scrippsiella Trochoidea. Acta Hydrobiologica Sinica, 27(4):372-377. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Xu N, Huang B Z, Hu Z X, Tang Y Z, Duan S S, Zhang C W. 2017. Effects of temperature, salinity, and irradiance on the growth of harmful algal bloom species Phaeocystis globosa scherffel (prymnesiophyceae) isolated from the South China Sea. Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology, 35(3):557-565.
Xu N, Qi Y Z, Chen J F, Huang W J, Lv S H, Wang Y. 2003. Analysis on the cause of Phaeocystis globosa Scherffel red tide. Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae, 23(1):113-118.(in Chinese with English abstract)
Yamasaki Y, Kim D I, Matsuyama Y, Oda T, Honjo T. 2004. Production of superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide by the red tide dinoflagellate Karenia mikimotoi. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 97(3):212-215.
Yang W D, Zhang N S, Cui W M, Xu Y Y, Li H Y, Liu J S. 2011. Effects of co-existing microalgae and grazers on the production of hemolytic toxins in Karenia mikimotoi.Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology, 29(6):1 155-1 163.
Yao W M, Pan X D, Hua D D. 2007. Primary research on reason of red tide caused by Karenia mikimotoi on Zhejiang sea area. Reservoir Fish, 27(6):57-58. (in Chinese)
Yin K D. 2003. Influence of monsoons and oceanographic processes on red tides in Hong Kong waters. Marine Ecology-Progress Series, 262:27-41.
Yuan Y Q, Yu Z M, Song X X, Cao X H. 2017. Temporal and spatial characteristics of harmful algal blooms in Qingdao waters, China. Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology, 35(2):400-414.
Zhang D P, Yang E L, Huang Y H. 2002. Status and tendency of harmful algal blooms in Shenzhen waters near years.Environmental Monitoring in China, 18(5):24-27. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Zhang F Y, Ma L B, Xu Z L, Zheng J B, Shi Y H, Lu Y N, Miao Y P. 2009. Sensitive and rapid detection of Karenia mikimotoi (Dinophyceae) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification. Harmful Algae, 8(6):839-842.
Zhang S J, Xu K C, Chen Q H, Zeng Z W. 1988. Observation of a red tide in the western coast of Xiamen. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 10(5):602-608. (in Chinese)
Zou Y, Yamasaki Y, Matsuyama Y, Yamaguchi K, Honjo T, Oda T. 2010.Possible involvement of hemolytic activity in the contact-dependent lethal effects of the dinoflagellate Karenia mikimotoi on the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis.Harmful Algae, 9(4):367-373.