Cite this paper:
FAN Xin, CHENG Fangjin, YU Zhiming, SONG Xiuxian. The environmental implication of diatom fossils in the surface sediment of the Changjiang River estuary (CRE) and its adjacent area[J]. HaiyangYuHuZhao, 2019, 37(2): 552-567

The environmental implication of diatom fossils in the surface sediment of the Changjiang River estuary (CRE) and its adjacent area

FAN Xin1,2,3, CHENG Fangjin4, YU Zhiming1,2,3, SONG Xiuxian1,2,3
1 CAS Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;
2 Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Science, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266071, China;
3 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;
4 Environmental Monitoring Center of Qingdao, Qingdao 266003, China
In order to depict the distribution of diatom fossils in surface sediments and to establish a reliable reference data for further paleoenvironmental study in the Changjiang (Yangtze) River estuary and its adjacent waters, the diatom fossils from 34 surface sediment samples and their relationship with environmental variables were analyzed by principal component analysis and redundancy correspondence analysis. The diversity and abundance of diatom fossils were analyzed. Some annual average parameters of the overlying water (salinity, temperature, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, depth, dissolved inorganic nitrogen, dissolved inorganic phosphate and dissolved inorganic silicate) were measured at each sampling site. A total of 113 diatom taxa and one silicoflagellate species were identified in the investigation area. Diatom fossils were better preserved in fine sediments. The absolute abundance of diatom fossils did not significantly differ between inshore and offshore areas, the species diversity decreased from inshore to offshore. This may be because high nutrients and low salinity promoted the growth of more brackish species in coastal waters. The diatom taxa were divided into three groups, on the basis of their response and indication to environmental changes. For example, Actinocyclus ehrenbergii and Cyclotella stylorum were dominant in coastal waters (Group 1 and Group 3) with high nutrients and low salinity; the relative abundances of Paralia sulcata and Podosira stelliger were significantly higher in offshore sites (Group 2, average 39.5%), which were characterized by high salinity and deep water. Four environmental variables (salinity, dissolved inorganic nitrogen, temperature and water depth) explained the composition and distribution of diatom taxa independently (P<0.05), this finding can be applied in further paleoenvironmental reconstruction research in this area.
Key words:    diatom fossils|Changjiang River estuary|surface sediments|environmental variables   
Received: 2018-02-14   Revised: 2018-03-30
PDF (2779 KB) Free
Print this page
Add to favorites
Email this article to others
Articles by FAN Xin
Articles by CHENG Fangjin
Articles by YU Zhiming
Articles by SONG Xiuxian
Abate R, Gao Y H, Chen C P, Liang J R, Mu W H, Kifile D, Chen Y H. 2017. Decadal variations in diatoms and dinoflagellates on the inner shelf of the East China Sea, China. Chin. J. Oceanol. Limn., 35(6):1 374-1 386.
Abrantes F, Gil I, Lopes C, Castro M. 2005. Quantitative diatom analyses-a faster cleaning procedure. Deep Sea.Res. Part. I. Oceanogr. Res. Pap., 52(1):189-198.
Bao X, Watanabe M, Wang Q X, Hayashi S, Liu J Y. 2006. Nitrogen budgets of agricultural fields of the Changjiang River basin from 1980 to 1990. Sci. Total. Environ., 363(1-3):136-148.
Battarbee R W, Jones V J, Flower R J, Cameron N G, Bennion H, Carvalho L, Juggins S. 2001. Diatoms. In:Smol J P, Birks H J B, Last W M eds. Tracking Environmental Change Using Lake Sediments. Volume 3:Terrestrial, Algal, and Siliceous Indicators. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht. p.155-202.
Bigler C, Heiri O, Krskova R, Lotter A F, Sturm M. 2006. Distribution of diatoms, chironomids and cladocera in surface sediments of thirty mountain lakes in southeastern Switzerland. Aquat. Sci., 68(2):154-171.
Chai C, Yu Z M, Shen Z L, Song X X, Cao X H, Yao Y. 2009. Nutrient characteristics in the Yangtze River estuary and the adjacent East China Sea before and after impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam. Sci. Total. Environ., 407(16):4 687-4 695.
Chen C T A. 2009. Chemical and physical fronts in the Bohai, Yellow and East China seas. J. Mar. Syst., 78(3):394-410.
Clarke A, Juggins S, Conley D. 2003. A 150-year reconstruction of the history of coastal eutrophication in Roskilde Fjord, Denmark. Mar. Pollut. Bull., 46(12):1 615-1 618.
Costa-Böddeker S, Thuyên L X, Schwarz A, Huy HĐ, Schwalb A. 2017. Diatom assemblages in surface sediments along nutrient and salinity gradients of Thi Vai estuary and Can Gio mangrove forest, Southern Vietnam. Estuar. Coast., 40(2):479-492.
Crosta X, Koç N. 2007. Diatoms:from micropaleontology to isotope geochemistry. In:Hillaire-Marcel C, De Vernal A eds. Proxies in Late Cenozoic Paleoceanography. Elsevier, Amsterdam. p.327-369.
Cunningham L, Snape I, Stark J S, Riddle M J. 2005. Benthic diatom community response to environmental variables and metal concentrations in a contaminated bay adjacent to Casey Station, Antarctica. Mar. Pollut. Bull., 50(3):264-275.
Dawes C J. 1998. Marine Botany. 2nd edn. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 484p.
Defersha M B, Melesse A M. 2012. Effect of rainfall intensity, slope and antecedent moisture content on sediment concentration and sediment enrichment ratio. CATENA, 90:47-52.
Di B P, Liu D Y, Wang Y J, Dong Z J, Li X, Shi Y J. 2013. Diatom and silicoflagellate assemblages in modern surface sediments associated with human activity:a case study in Sishili Bay, China. Ecol. Indic., 24:23-30.
Duan S W, Liang T, Zhang S, Wang L J, Zhang X M, Chen X B. 2008. Seasonal changes in nitrogen and phosphorus transport in the lower Changjiang River before the construction of the Three Gorges Dam. Estuarine Coast.Shelf Sci., 79(2):239-250.
Dura T, Hemphill-Haley E, Sawai Y, Horton B P. 2016. The application of diatoms to reconstruct the history of subduction zone earthquakes and tsunamis. Earth-Sci.Rev., 152:181-197.
Gao X L, Song J M. 2005. Phytoplankton distributions and their relationship with the environment in the Changjiang estuary, China. Mar. Pollut. Bull., 50(3):327-335.
Geider R J, MacIntyre H L, Graziano L M, McKay R M L. 1998. Responses of the photosynthetic apparatus of Dunaliella tertiolecta (Chlorophyceae) to nitrogen and phosphorus limitation. Eur. J. Phycol., 33(4):315-332.
Guo Y J, Qian S B, 2003. Marine Bacillariophyta Centricae Flora China Sea. Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
Hasle G R, Syvertsen E E. 1996. Marine diatoms. In:Tomas C R ed. Identifying Marine Diatoms and Dinoflagellates.Academic Press, San Diego. p.5-386.
Hassan G S, Espinosa M A, Isla F I. 2007. Dead diatom assemblages in surface sediments from a low impacted estuary:the Quequén Salado River, Argentina.Hydrobiologia, 579(1):257-270.
Hassan G S, Espinosa M A, Isla F I. 2008. Fidelity of dead diatom assemblages in estuarine sediments:how much environmental information is preserved? PALAIOS, 23(1-2):112-120.
Hassan G S, Espinosa M A, Isla F I. 2009. Diatom-based inference model for paleosalinity reconstructions in estuaries along the northeastern coast of Argentina.Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol., 275(1-4):77-91.
Huh C A, Su C C. 1999. Sedimentation dynamics in the East China Sea elucidated from 210Pb, 137Cs and 239, 240Pu. Mar.Geol., 160(1-2):183-196.
Jiang Z B, Chen J F, Zhou F, Shou L, Chen Q Z, Tao B Y, Yan X J, Wang K. 2015. Controlling factors of summer phytoplankton community in the Changjiang (Yangtze River) estuary and adjacent East China Sea shelf. Cont.Shelf. Res., 101:71-84.
Juggins S. 1992. Diatoms in the Thames estuary, England:ecology, palaeoecology, and salinity transfer function.Bibl. Diatomol., 25:1-216.
Lepš J, Šmilauer P. 2003. Multivariate Analysis of Ecological Data Using CANOCO. Cambridge University Press, New York. 193p.
Li G, Gao K S. 2014. Effects of solar UV radiation on photosynthetic performance of the diatom Skeletonema costatum grown under nitrate limited condition. ALGAE, 29(1):27-34.
Li H M, Tang H J, Shi X Y, Zhang C S, Wang X L. 2014. Increased nutrient loads from the Changjiang (Yangtze)River have led to increased harmful algal blooms. Harmful Algae, 39:92-101.
Li L, Shen X, Jiang M. 2017. Change characteristics of DSi and nutrition structure at the Yangtze River estuary after Three Gorges Project impounding and their ecological effect. Arch. Environ. Prot., 43(2):74-79.
Lin F Z, Wu Y L, Yu H C, Xian W W. 2008. Phytoplankton community structure in the Changjiang estuary and its adjacent waters in 2004. Oceanol. Limnol. Sin, 39(4):401-410.(in Chinese with English abstract)
Liu D Y, Liu L X, Di B P, Wang Y J, Wang Y N. 2015a.Paleoenvironmental analyses of surface sediments from the Bohai Sea, China, using diatoms and silicoflagellates.Mar. Micropaleontol., 114:46-54.
Liu D Y, Sun J, Zhang J, Liu G S. 2008. Response of the diatom flora in Jiaozhou Bay, China to environmental changes during the last century. Mar. Micropaleontol., 66(3-4):279-290.
Liu H J, Fu W C, Sun J. 2015b. Seasonal variations of netzphytoplankton community in East China Sea continental shelf from 2009-2011. Haiyang Xuebao, 37(10):106-122.(in Chinese with English abstract)
Liu J P, Li A C, Xu K H, Velozzi D M, Yang Z S, Milliman J D, DeMaster D J. 2006. Sedimentary features of the Yangtze River-derived along-shelf clinoform deposit in the East China Sea. Cont. Shelf Res., 26(17-18):2 141-2 156.
Liu J P, Xu K H, Li A C, Milliman J D, Velozzi D M, Xiao S B, Yang Z S. 2007. Flux and fate of Yangtze River sediment delivered to the East China Sea. Geomorphology, 85(3-4):208-224.
Liu R M, Men C, Liu Y Y, Yu W W, Xu F, Shen Z Y. 2016a.Spatial distribution and pollution evaluation of heavy metals in Yangtze estuary sediment. Mar. Pollut. Bull., 110(1):564-571.
Liu S M, Qi X H, Li X N, Ye H R, Wu Y, Ren J L, Zhang J, Xu W Y. 2016b. Nutrient dynamics from the Changjiang (Yangtze River) estuary to the East China Sea. J. Marine.Syst., 154:15-27.
Loebl M, Cockshutt A M, Campbell D A, Finkel Z V. 2010.Physiological basis for high resistance to photoinhibition under nitrogen depletion in Emiliania huxleyi. Limnol.Oceanogr., 55(5):2 150-2 160.
Luoto T P, Rantala M V, Tammelin M H. 2017. Tracking the limnoecological history of Lake Hiidenvesi (Southern Finland) using the paleolimnological approach. Water Air Soil Poll., 228(12):461.
Margalef R. 1968. Perspective in Ecological Theory. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. 408p.
McQuoid M R, Hobson L A. 1998. Assessment of palaeoenvironmental conditions on southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada, using the marine tychoplankter Paralia sulcata. Diatom. Res., 13(2):311-321.
McQuoid M R, Hobson L A. 2001. A Holocene record of diatom and silicoflagellate microfossils in sediments of Saanich Inlet, ODP Leg 169S. Mar. Geol., 174(1-4):111-123.
McQuoid M R, Nordberg K. 2003. The diatom Paralia sulcata as an environmental indicator species in coastal sediments.Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci., 56(2):339-354.
Mirabdullayev I M, Joldasova I M, Mustafaeva Z A, Kazakhbaev S, Lyubimova S A, Tashmukhamedov B A. 2004. Succession of the ecosystems of the Aral Sea during its transition from oligohaline to polyhaline water body. J.Marine Syst., 47(1-4):101-107.
Montagnes D J S, Franklin M. 2001. Effect of temperature on diatom volume, growth rate, and carbon and nitrogen content:reconsidering some paradigms. Limnol.Oceanogr., 46(8):2 008-2 018.
Nazarova L, Bleibtreu A, Hoff U, Dirksen V, Diekmann B. 2017. Changes in temperature and water depth of a small mountain lake during the past 3000 years in Central Kamchatka reflected by a chironomid record. Quatern.Int., 447:46-58.
Ning X, Lin C, Su J, Liu C, Hao Q, Le F. 2011. Long-term changes of dissolved oxygen, hypoxia, and the responses of the ecosystems in the East China Sea from 1975 to 1995. J. Oceanogr., 67(1):59-75.
Pu X M, Wu Y L, Zhang Y S. 2001. Nutrient limitation of phytoplankton in the Changjiang estuary Ⅱ. Condition of nutrient limitation in spring. Acta Oceanol. Sin., 23(3):57-65. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Ren J, Gersonde R, Esper O, Sancetta C. 2014. Diatom distributions in northern North Pacific surface sediments and their relationship to modern environmental variables.Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol., 402:81-103.
Romero O E, Armand L K, Crosta X, Pichon J J. 2005. The biogeography of major diatom taxa in Southern Ocean surface sediments:3. Tropical/Subtropical species.Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol., 223(1-2):49-65.
Sayer C, Roberts N, Sadler J, David C, Wade P M. 1999. Biodiversity changes in a shallow lake ecosystem:a multi-proxy palaeolimnological analysis. J. Biogeogr., 26(1):97-114.
Schröder M, Sondermann M, Sures B, Hering D. 2015. Effects of salinity gradients on benthic invertebrate and diatom communities in a German lowland river. Ecol. Indic., 57:236-248.
Serieyssol K, Chatelard S, Cubizolle H. 2011. Diatom fossils in mires:a protocol for extraction, preparation and analysis in palaeoenvironmental studies. Mires Peat, 7(12):12.
Shannon C E, Weaver W. 1949. The Mathematical Theory of Communication. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 117p.
Shepard F P. 1954. Nomenclature based on sand-silt-clay ratios. J. Sediment. Petrol., 24(3):151-158.
Song S Q, Li Z, Li C W, Yu Z M. 2017. The response of spring phytoplankton assemblage to diluted water and upwelling in the eutrophic Changjiang (Yangtze River) estuary.Acta Oceanol. Sin., 36(12):101-110.
Song S Q, Sun J, Luan Q S, Shen Z L. 2008. Size-fractionated phytoplankton biomass in autumn of the Changjiang(Yangtze) River estuary and its adjacent waters after the Three Gorges Dam construction. Chin. J. Oceanol.Limnol., 26(3):268-275.
Tang X H, Wang F. 2004. Analyses on hydrographic structure in the Changjiang River estuary adjacent waters in Summer and Winter. Stud. Mar. Sin., 46:42-66. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Wang B D. 2006. Cultural eutrophication in the Changjiang(Yangtze River) plume:history and perspective. Estuar.Coast. Shelf Sci., 69(3-4):471-477.
Wang G Q, Shi X F, Liu Y G, Fang X S, Yang G. 2013. Seasonal and spatial variation in suspended sediment characteristics off the Changjiang estuary. In:Li M Z, Sherwood C R, Hill P R eds. Sediments, Morphology and Sedimentary Processes on Continental Shelves:Advances in Technologies, Research and Applications. WileyBlackwell, Hoboken, NJ. p.351-368.
Wang J H. 2002. Phytoplankton Communities in three distinct ecotypes of the Changjiang estuary. J. Ocean Univ.Qingdao, 32(3):422-428. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Wang K F, Jiang H, Zhang Y L, Wang Y J, Xu J S. 1985. Environmental discussion on distribution of the diatom in the surface sediments of the Huanghai Sea. Oceanol.Limnol. Sin., 16(5):400-407. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Wang K F, Jiang H, Zhi C Y, Tao M H, Wang H G. 2001. Study on the relationship between diatom assemblage in surface sediments and the environment in the East China Sea.Acta Micropalaeontol. Sin., 18(4):379-384. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Wang K F, Zhang Y L, Jiang H, Sun Y H. 1984. Analysis of fossil algal assemblages from the late late Pleistocene sediments in the continental shelf of the Dong Hai and their paleoecological environment. Acta Ecol. Sin., 4(3):224-230. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Wang Y N, Liu D Y, Di B P, Shi Y J, Wang Y J. 2016. Distribution of diatoms and silicoflagellates in surface sediments of the Yellow Sea and offshore from the Changjiang River, China. Chin. J. Oceanol. Limn., 34(1):44-58.
Weckström J, Korhola A, Blom T. 1997. Diatoms as quantitative indicators of pH and water temperature in subarctic Fennoscandian lakes. Hydrobiologia, 347(1-3):171-184.
Weckström K, Juggins S, Korhola A. 2004. Quantifying background nutrient concentrations in coastal waters:a case study from an urban embayment of the Baltic Sea.Ambio, 33(6):324-327.
Wong P P, Losada I J, Gattuso J P, Hinkel J, Khattabi A, McInnes K L, Saito Y, Sallenger A. 2014. Coastal systems and low-lying areas. In:Field C B, Barros V R, Dokken D J, Mach K J, Mastrandrea M D, Bilir T E, Chatterjee M, Ebi K L, Estrada Y O, Genova R C, Girma B, Kissel E S, Levy A N, MacCracken S, Mastrandrea P R, White L L eds. Climate Change 2014:Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A:Global and Sectoral Aspects.Contribution of Working Group Ⅱ to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United. p.361-409.
Yang Z, Wang H, Saito Y, Milliman J D, Xu K, Qiao S, Shi G. 2006. Dam impacts on the Changjiang (Yangtze) River sediment discharge to the sea:the past 55 years and after the Three Gorges Dam. Water Resour. Res., 42(4):W04407.
Zhang J, Liu S M, Ren J L, Wu Y, Zhang G L. 2007. Nutrient gradients from the eutrophic Changjiang (Yangtze River) estuary to the oligotrophic Kuroshio waters and reevaluation of budgets for the East China Sea Shelf. Prog. Oceanogr., 74:449-478.
Zhou M J, Shen Z L, Yu R C. 2008. Responses of a coastal phytoplankton community to increased nutrient input from the Changjiang (Yangtze) River. Cont. Shelf Res., 28(12):1 483-1 489.
Zhou Z X, Yu R C, Zhou M J. 2017. Resolving the complex relationship between harmful algal blooms and environmental factors in the coastal waters adjacent to the Changjiang River estuary. Harmful Algae, 62:60-72.
Zhu Z Y, Zhang J, Ying Wu, Zhang Y Y, Lin J, Liu S M. 2011. Hypoxia off the Changjiang (Yangtze River) estuary:oxygen depletion and organic matter decomposition. Mar. Chem., 125(1-4):108-116.
Zong Y Q, Tooley M J. 1999. Evidence of mid-Holocene storm-surge deposits from Morecambe Bay, northwest England:a biostratigraphical approach. Quat. Int., 55(1):43-50.
Zong Y Q. 1997. Implications of Paralia sulcata abundance in Scottish isolation basins. Diatom. Res., 12(1):125-150.