Cite this paper:
WU Huixian, SHEN Chen, WANG Qiong, Richard B. ARONSON, CHEN Chen, XUE Junzeng. Survivorship characteristics and adaptive mechanisms of phytoplankton assemblages in ballast water[J]. HaiyangYuHuZhao, 2019, 37(2): 580-588

Survivorship characteristics and adaptive mechanisms of phytoplankton assemblages in ballast water

WU Huixian1,2, SHEN Chen1,2, WANG Qiong1,2, Richard B. ARONSON3, CHEN Chen1,2, XUE Junzeng1,2,3
1 College of Marine Ecology and Environment, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306, China;
2 Ballast Water Detecting Lab, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306, China;
3 Department of Biological Sciences, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, Florida 32901, USA
Abstract:
Phytoplankton diversity and abundance were determined in ballast water from 26 vessels in the Shanghai Yangshan Deep-Water Port from April 2015 to January 2016. In total, 84 species of phytoplankton were identified, belonging to 43 genera and 5 phyla. Bacillariophyta (75.0%, including 30 genera and 63 species) were the dominant algae in the ballast water. Their density ranged from (5.55±9.62) SD to (1.878±0.872)×103 cells/L, with a mean of 410.1 cells/L. Nine potentially harmful phytoplankton taxa were detected:Ceratium furca, Ce. marcroceros, Leptocylindrus danicus, Coscinodiscus radiatus, Co. granii, Prorocentrum micans, Melosira sulcata, Meuniera membranacea and Skeletonema costatum. Our survey and identification results showed that Microcystis aeruginosa, Ankistrodesmus falcatus and Scenedesmus survived in the high-salinity ballast water, even though they are freshwater species. We identified the common features of surviving phytoplankton and impacts on the phytoplankton assemblage of ballast water age and source. Our goal was to understand the adaptative mechanisms of phytoplankton in ballast water, providing statistical and theoretical support for future ballast water research and suggesting a scientific basis of ballast water management and inspection of vessels entering the port.
Key words:    diversity abundances|Yangshan Port|dominant algae|ballast water age|source   
Received: 2017-10-19   Revised: 2018-01-01
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References:
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Burkholder J M, Hallegraeff G M, Melia G, Cohen A, Bowers H A, Oldach D W, Parrow M W, Sullivan M J, Zimba P V, Allen E H, Kinder C A, Mallin M A. 2007. Phytoplankton and bacterial assemblages in ballast water of U.S. military ships as a function of port of origin, voyage time, and ocean exchange practices. Harmful Algae, 6(4):486-518.
Carlton J T, Geller J B. 1993. Ecological roulette:the global transport of nonindigenous marine organisms. Science, 261(5117):78-82.
Carlton J T. 1985. Transoceanic and interoceanic dispersal of coastal marine organisms:the biology of ballast water.Oceanography and Marine Biology, 23(4):313-371.
Casas-Monroy O, Linley R D, Adams J K, Chan F T, Drake D A R, Bailey S A. 2015. Relative invasion risk for plankton across marine and freshwater systems:examining efficacy of proposed international ballast water discharge standards. PLoS One, 10(3):e0118267.
Casas-Monroy O, Parenteau M, Drake D A R, Roy S, Rochon A.2016. Absolute estimates of the propagule pressure of viable dinofagellates across Canadian coasts:the variable infuence of ballast water exchange. Marine Biology, 163:174.
Casas-Monroy O, Roy S, Andre R. 2011. Ballast sedimentmediated transport of non-indigenous species of dinoflagellates on the East Coast of Canada. Aquatic Invasions, 6(3):231-248.
Chen X F, Zhou Q J, Duan W J, Zhou C X, Duan L J, Zhang H L, Sun A L, Yan X J, Chen J. 2016. Development and evaluation of a DNA microarray assay for the simultaneous detection of nine harmful algal species in ship ballast and seaport waters. Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology, 34(1):86-101.
Chu K H, Tam P F, Fung C H, Chen Q C. 1997. A biological survey of ballast water in container ships entering Hong Kong. Hydrobiologia, 352(1-3):201-206.
David M, Gollasch S, Cabrini M, Perkovič M, Bošnjak D, Virgilio D. 2007. Results from the first ballast water sampling study in the Mediterranean Sea-the Port of Koper study. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 54(1):53-65.
David M, Gollasch S, Leppäkoski E, Hewitt C. 2015. Risk assessment in ballast water management. In:David M, Gollasch S eds. Global Maritime Transport and Ballast water Management. Springer, Netherland. p.133-169.
Dickman M, Zhang F Z. 1999. Mid-ocean exchange of container vessel ballast water. 2:effects of vessel type in the transport of diatoms and dinoflagellates from Manzanillo, Mexico, to Hong Kong, China. Marine Ecology Progress, 176:253-262.
Fahnenstiel G, Hong Y, Millie D, Doblin M A, Johengen T, Reid D. 2009. Marine dinoflagellate cysts in the ballast tank sediments of ships entering the Laurentian Great Lakes. Transport Engineering in Australia, 30(6):353-355.
Feng D L, Xu S H, Liu G. 2015. Application of immobilized TiO2 photocatalysis to improve the inactivation of heterosigma akashiwo in ballast water by intense pulsed light. Chemosphere, 125:102-107.
Galluzzi L, Cegna A, Casabianca S, Penna A, Saunders N, Magnani M. 2011. Development of an oligonucleotide microarray for the detection and monitoring of marine dinoflagellates. Journal of Microbiological Methods, 84(2):234-242.
Gollasch S, Lenz J, Dammer M, Andres H G. 2000. Survival of tropical ballast water organisms during a cruise from the Indian Ocean to the North Sea. Journal of Plankton Research, 22(5):923-937.
Guo Y G, Qian S D. 2003. China Seaweed. Science Press, Beijing, China. (in Chinese)
Hallegraeff G M, Bolch D J. 1991. Transport of toxic dinoflagellate cysts via ships' ballast water. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 22(1):27-30.
Hamer J P, Lucas I A N, McCollln T A. 2001. Harmful dinoflagellate resting cysts in ships' ballast tank sediments:potential for introduction into English and Welsh waters.Phycologia, 40(3):246-255.
Handy S M, Demir E, Hutchins D A, Portune K J, Whereat E B, Hare C E, Rose J M, Warner M, Farestad M, Cary S C, Coyne K J. 2008. Using quantitative real-time PCR to study competition and community dynamics among Delaware Inland Bays harmful algae in field and laboratory studies. Harmful Algae, 7(5):599-613.
Hu H J, Wei Y X. 2006. The Freshwater Algae of ChinaSystematics, Taxonomy and Ecology. Science Press, Beijing, China. (in Chinese)
IMI (International Maritime Information Website). 2018. Shanghai port's news. APL launches premium ShanghaiLA service to help airfreight shippers. 2018-03-07 08:33:58 View:39, http://www.simic.net.cn/news_list.php?lan=en&id=368&flag=cnports&pname=shanghai.
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Jin D X, Chen J H, Huang K G. 1965. Chinese Marine Planktonic Diatoms. Shanghai Science and Technology Press, Shanghai, China. (in Chinese)
Jin D X, Cheng Z, Lin J. 1982. China Ocean Bottom Handle Diatoms. Ocean Press, Beijing, China. (in Chinese)
Jin D X, Cheng Z, Liu S C. 1991. China Marine Benthic Diatoms. Ocean Press, Beijing, China. (in Chinese)
John P H, McCollin T A, Lucas I A N. 2000. Dinoflagellate cysts in ballast tank sediments:between tank variability.Marine Pollution Bulletin, 40(9):731-733.
Klein G, Macintosh K, Kaczmarska I, Ehrman J M. 2010.Diatom survivorship in ballast water during trans-pacific crossings. Biological Invasions, 12(5):1 031-1 044.
Liebich V, Stehouwer P P, Veldhuis M. 2012. Re-growth of potential invasive phytoplankton following UV-based ballast water treatment. Aquatic Invasions, 7(1):29-36.
Liu K. 2005. Science and technology in Foreign countries.Marine Invasion, (5):26-28.
Liu Y, Wang S, Wang Q, Li Y, Wang H X, Guan Y Y. 2011. Notice of retraction investigation of plankton in ballast water of two Chinese domestic voyages. In:Proceedings of 2011 5th International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering. IEEE, Wuhan, China. p.78-82.
Mackenzie M. 1999. Alien invaders. New Scientist, 162(2183):18-19.
McCarthy H P, Crowder L B. 2000. An overlooked scale of global transport:phytoplankton species richness in ships' ballast water. Biological Invasions, 2(4):321-322.
McCoy G R, Touzet N, Fleming G T A, Raine R. 2013. An evaluation of the applicability of microarrays for monitoring toxic algae in Irish coastal waters.Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 20(10):6 751-6 764.
McQuoid M R, Hobson L A. 1996. Diatom resting stages.Journal of Phycology, 32:889-902.
Medcof J C. 1975. Living marine animals in a ships' ballast water. Proceedings of the National Shellfisheries Association, 65:11-12.
Olenin S, Gollasch S, Jonušas S, Rimkutė I. 2000. En-route investigations of plankton in ballast water on a ship's voyage from the Baltic Sea to the open Atlantic coast of Europe. International Review of Hydrobiology, 85(5-6):577-596.
Pam E D, Li K X, Wall A, Yang Z, Wang J. 2013. A subjective approach for ballast water risk estimation. Ocean Engineering, 61:66-76.
Round F E, Crawford R M, Mann D G. 1990. The Diatoms:Biology and Morphology of the Genera. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Ruiz G M, Carlton J T, Grosholz E D, Hines A H. 1997. Global invasions of marine and estuarine habitats by nonindigenous species:mechanisms, extent, and consequences. American Zoologist, 37(6):621-632.
Ruiz G M, Rawlings T K, Dobbs F C, Drake L A, Mullady T, Huq A, Colwell R R. 2000. Global spread of microorganisms by ships. Nature, 408(6808):49-50.
Sarinas B G S, Gellada L D, Magramo M M, Baria LO, Tirazona D B, Sorio L R D, Tornalejo J A. 2014. Plankton diversity in ballast water of an inter-island passengercargo ship calling the Philippine ports. Asian Journal of Biodiversity, 5(1):78-91.
Satir T. 2008. Ship's ballast water and marine pollution. In:Coskun H G, Cigizoglu H K, Maktav M D eds. Integration of Information for Environmental Security. Springer, Netherlands. p.453-463.
Satir T. 2014. Ballast water treatment systems:design, regulations, and selection under the choice varying priorities. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 21(18):10 686-10 695.
Sicko-Goad L, Stoermer E F, Kociolek J P. 1989. Diatom resting cell rejuvenation and formation:time course, species records and distribution. Journal of Plankton Research, 11(2):375-389.
Stan L C, Sabau A, Buzbuchi N. 2013. Ballast water treating by advanced oxidation technology. Annals of the University Dunarea De Jos of Galati:Fascicle Ⅱ, 36(2):287-291.
Stehouwer P P, Buma A, Peperzak L. 2015. A comparison of six different ballast water treatment systems based on UV radiation, electrochlorination and chlorine dioxide.Environmental Technology, 36(13-16):2 094-2 104.
Steichen J L, Denby A, Windham R, Brinkmeyer R, Quigg A. 2015. A Tale of Two Ports:Dinoflagellate and Diatom Communities Found in the High Ship Traffic Region of Galveston Bay, Texas (USA). Journal of Coastal Research, 31(2):407-416.
The General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the People's Republic of China and the National Standardization Administration of China. 2007a.GB 17378.4-2007 The Specification for Marine Monitoring-Part 4:Seawater Analysis. China Standard Press, Beijing, China. (in Chinese)
The General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the People's Republic of China and the National Standardization Administration of China. 2007b.GB 17378.7-2007 The Specification for Marine Monitoring-Part 7:Ecological Survey for Offshore Pollution and Biological Monitoring. China Standard Press, Beijing, China. (in Chinese)
Wang C C, Niu Z G, Zhang Y. 2013. Health risk assessment of inhalation exposure of irrigation workers and the public to trihalomethanes from reclaimed water in landscape irrigation in Tianjin, north China. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 262:179-188.
Wang G. 2014. The international shipping situation and the development Suggestions of Yangshan deep-water port.Transportation Enterprise Management, 29(8):11-14. (in Chinese)
Xue J Z, Liu Y, Wang J H, Xing X L, Xu L P, Feng D L, Wu H X. 2011. A biological survey of zooplankton taken from ballast water of the international navigation ships entering the Shanghai Yangshan Deep-water Port in China. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 33(1):138-145. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Xue J Z, Xiao N Y, Wang Q, Wu H X.2016.Seasonal variation of bacterial community diversity in Yangshan Por. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 36(23):7 758-7 767. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Yang S M, Dong S. 2006. Common Planktonic Diatoms in China Sea Map. China Ocean University Press, Qingdao, China. (in Chinese)
Yuan J, Mi T Z, Zhen Y, Yu Z G. 2012. Development of a rapid detection and quantification method of Karenia mikimotoi by real-time quantitative PCR. Harmful Algae, 17:83-91.Antonella P, Luca G. 2013. The quantitative real-time PCR applications in the monitoring of marine harmful algal bloom (HAB) species. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 20(10):6 851-6 862.
Burkholder J M, Hallegraeff G M, Melia G, Cohen A, Bowers H A, Oldach D W, Parrow M W, Sullivan M J, Zimba P V, Allen E H, Kinder C A, Mallin M A. 2007. Phytoplankton and bacterial assemblages in ballast water of U.S. military ships as a function of port of origin, voyage time, and ocean exchange practices. Harmful Algae, 6(4):486-518.
Carlton J T, Geller J B. 1993. Ecological roulette:the global transport of nonindigenous marine organisms. Science, 261(5117):78-82.
Carlton J T. 1985. Transoceanic and interoceanic dispersal of coastal marine organisms:the biology of ballast water.Oceanography and Marine Biology, 23(4):313-371.
Casas-Monroy O, Linley R D, Adams J K, Chan F T, Drake D A R, Bailey S A. 2015. Relative invasion risk for plankton across marine and freshwater systems:examining efficacy of proposed international ballast water discharge standards. PLoS One, 10(3):e0118267.
Casas-Monroy O, Parenteau M, Drake D A R, Roy S, Rochon A.2016. Absolute estimates of the propagule pressure of viable dinofagellates across Canadian coasts:the variable infuence of ballast water exchange. Marine Biology, 163:174.
Casas-Monroy O, Roy S, Andre R. 2011. Ballast sedimentmediated transport of non-indigenous species of dinoflagellates on the East Coast of Canada. Aquatic Invasions, 6(3):231-248.
Chen X F, Zhou Q J, Duan W J, Zhou C X, Duan L J, Zhang H L, Sun A L, Yan X J, Chen J. 2016. Development and evaluation of a DNA microarray assay for the simultaneous detection of nine harmful algal species in ship ballast and seaport waters. Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology, 34(1):86-101.
Chu K H, Tam P F, Fung C H, Chen Q C. 1997. A biological survey of ballast water in container ships entering Hong Kong. Hydrobiologia, 352(1-3):201-206.
David M, Gollasch S, Cabrini M, Perkovič M, Bošnjak D, Virgilio D. 2007. Results from the first ballast water sampling study in the Mediterranean Sea-the Port of Koper study. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 54(1):53-65.
David M, Gollasch S, Leppäkoski E, Hewitt C. 2015. Risk assessment in ballast water management. In:David M, Gollasch S eds. Global Maritime Transport and Ballast water Management. Springer, Netherland. p.133-169.
Dickman M, Zhang F Z. 1999. Mid-ocean exchange of container vessel ballast water. 2:effects of vessel type in the transport of diatoms and dinoflagellates from Manzanillo, Mexico, to Hong Kong, China. Marine Ecology Progress, 176:253-262.
Fahnenstiel G, Hong Y, Millie D, Doblin M A, Johengen T, Reid D. 2009. Marine dinoflagellate cysts in the ballast tank sediments of ships entering the Laurentian Great Lakes. Transport Engineering in Australia, 30(6):353-355.
Feng D L, Xu S H, Liu G. 2015. Application of immobilized TiO2 photocatalysis to improve the inactivation of heterosigma akashiwo in ballast water by intense pulsed light. Chemosphere, 125:102-107.
Galluzzi L, Cegna A, Casabianca S, Penna A, Saunders N, Magnani M. 2011. Development of an oligonucleotide microarray for the detection and monitoring of marine dinoflagellates. Journal of Microbiological Methods, 84(2):234-242.
Gollasch S, Lenz J, Dammer M, Andres H G. 2000. Survival of tropical ballast water organisms during a cruise from the Indian Ocean to the North Sea. Journal of Plankton Research, 22(5):923-937.
Guo Y G, Qian S D. 2003. China Seaweed. Science Press, Beijing, China. (in Chinese)
Hallegraeff G M, Bolch D J. 1991. Transport of toxic dinoflagellate cysts via ships' ballast water. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 22(1):27-30.
Hamer J P, Lucas I A N, McCollln T A. 2001. Harmful dinoflagellate resting cysts in ships' ballast tank sediments:potential for introduction into English and Welsh waters.Phycologia, 40(3):246-255.
Handy S M, Demir E, Hutchins D A, Portune K J, Whereat E B, Hare C E, Rose J M, Warner M, Farestad M, Cary S C, Coyne K J. 2008. Using quantitative real-time PCR to study competition and community dynamics among Delaware Inland Bays harmful algae in field and laboratory studies. Harmful Algae, 7(5):599-613.
Hu H J, Wei Y X. 2006. The Freshwater Algae of ChinaSystematics, Taxonomy and Ecology. Science Press, Beijing, China. (in Chinese)
IMI (International Maritime Information Website). 2018. Shanghai port's news. APL launches premium ShanghaiLA service to help airfreight shippers. 2018-03-07 08:33:58 View:39, http://www.simic.net.cn/news_list.php?lan=en&id=368&flag=cnports&pname=shanghai.
IMO (International Maritime Organization). 2004. International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments. London, England:International Maritime Organization.
IMO. 2008. IMO. http://www.imo.org/en/About/Pages/Default.aspx. Accessed on 2008-04-24.
Jin D X, Chen J H, Huang K G. 1965. Chinese Marine Planktonic Diatoms. Shanghai Science and Technology Press, Shanghai, China. (in Chinese)
Jin D X, Cheng Z, Lin J. 1982. China Ocean Bottom Handle Diatoms. Ocean Press, Beijing, China. (in Chinese)
Jin D X, Cheng Z, Liu S C. 1991. China Marine Benthic Diatoms. Ocean Press, Beijing, China. (in Chinese)
John P H, McCollin T A, Lucas I A N. 2000. Dinoflagellate cysts in ballast tank sediments:between tank variability.Marine Pollution Bulletin, 40(9):731-733.
Klein G, Macintosh K, Kaczmarska I, Ehrman J M. 2010.Diatom survivorship in ballast water during trans-pacific crossings. Biological Invasions, 12(5):1 031-1 044.
Liebich V, Stehouwer P P, Veldhuis M. 2012. Re-growth of potential invasive phytoplankton following UV-based ballast water treatment. Aquatic Invasions, 7(1):29-36.
Liu K. 2005. Science and technology in Foreign countries.Marine Invasion, (5):26-28.
Liu Y, Wang S, Wang Q, Li Y, Wang H X, Guan Y Y. 2011. Notice of retraction investigation of plankton in ballast water of two Chinese domestic voyages. In:Proceedings of 2011 5th International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering. IEEE, Wuhan, China. p.78-82.
Mackenzie M. 1999. Alien invaders. New Scientist, 162(2183):18-19.
McCarthy H P, Crowder L B. 2000. An overlooked scale of global transport:phytoplankton species richness in ships' ballast water. Biological Invasions, 2(4):321-322.
McCoy G R, Touzet N, Fleming G T A, Raine R. 2013. An evaluation of the applicability of microarrays for monitoring toxic algae in Irish coastal waters.Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 20(10):6 751-6 764.
McQuoid M R, Hobson L A. 1996. Diatom resting stages.Journal of Phycology, 32:889-902.
Medcof J C. 1975. Living marine animals in a ships' ballast water. Proceedings of the National Shellfisheries Association, 65:11-12.
Olenin S, Gollasch S, Jonušas S, Rimkutė I. 2000. En-route investigations of plankton in ballast water on a ship's voyage from the Baltic Sea to the open Atlantic coast of Europe. International Review of Hydrobiology, 85(5-6):577-596.
Pam E D, Li K X, Wall A, Yang Z, Wang J. 2013. A subjective approach for ballast water risk estimation. Ocean Engineering, 61:66-76.
Round F E, Crawford R M, Mann D G. 1990. The Diatoms:Biology and Morphology of the Genera. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Ruiz G M, Carlton J T, Grosholz E D, Hines A H. 1997. Global invasions of marine and estuarine habitats by nonindigenous species:mechanisms, extent, and consequences. American Zoologist, 37(6):621-632.
Ruiz G M, Rawlings T K, Dobbs F C, Drake L A, Mullady T, Huq A, Colwell R R. 2000. Global spread of microorganisms by ships. Nature, 408(6808):49-50.
Sarinas B G S, Gellada L D, Magramo M M, Baria LO, Tirazona D B, Sorio L R D, Tornalejo J A. 2014. Plankton diversity in ballast water of an inter-island passengercargo ship calling the Philippine ports. Asian Journal of Biodiversity, 5(1):78-91.
Satir T. 2008. Ship's ballast water and marine pollution. In:Coskun H G, Cigizoglu H K, Maktav M D eds. Integration of Information for Environmental Security. Springer, Netherlands. p.453-463.
Satir T. 2014. Ballast water treatment systems:design, regulations, and selection under the choice varying priorities. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 21(18):10 686-10 695.
Sicko-Goad L, Stoermer E F, Kociolek J P. 1989. Diatom resting cell rejuvenation and formation:time course, species records and distribution. Journal of Plankton Research, 11(2):375-389.
Stan L C, Sabau A, Buzbuchi N. 2013. Ballast water treating by advanced oxidation technology. Annals of the University Dunarea De Jos of Galati:Fascicle Ⅱ, 36(2):287-291.
Stehouwer P P, Buma A, Peperzak L. 2015. A comparison of six different ballast water treatment systems based on UV radiation, electrochlorination and chlorine dioxide.Environmental Technology, 36(13-16):2 094-2 104.
Steichen J L, Denby A, Windham R, Brinkmeyer R, Quigg A. 2015. A Tale of Two Ports:Dinoflagellate and Diatom Communities Found in the High Ship Traffic Region of Galveston Bay, Texas (USA). Journal of Coastal Research, 31(2):407-416.
The General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the People's Republic of China and the National Standardization Administration of China. 2007a.GB 17378.4-2007 The Specification for Marine Monitoring-Part 4:Seawater Analysis. China Standard Press, Beijing, China. (in Chinese)
The General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the People's Republic of China and the National Standardization Administration of China. 2007b.GB 17378.7-2007 The Specification for Marine Monitoring-Part 7:Ecological Survey for Offshore Pollution and Biological Monitoring. China Standard Press, Beijing, China. (in Chinese)
Wang C C, Niu Z G, Zhang Y. 2013. Health risk assessment of inhalation exposure of irrigation workers and the public to trihalomethanes from reclaimed water in landscape irrigation in Tianjin, north China. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 262:179-188.
Wang G. 2014. The international shipping situation and the development Suggestions of Yangshan deep-water port.Transportation Enterprise Management, 29(8):11-14. (in Chinese)
Xue J Z, Liu Y, Wang J H, Xing X L, Xu L P, Feng D L, Wu H X. 2011. A biological survey of zooplankton taken from ballast water of the international navigation ships entering the Shanghai Yangshan Deep-water Port in China. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 33(1):138-145. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Xue J Z, Xiao N Y, Wang Q, Wu H X.2016.Seasonal variation of bacterial community diversity in Yangshan Por. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 36(23):7 758-7 767. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Yang S M, Dong S. 2006. Common Planktonic Diatoms in China Sea Map. China Ocean University Press, Qingdao, China. (in Chinese)
Yuan J, Mi T Z, Zhen Y, Yu Z G. 2012. Development of a rapid detection and quantification method of Karenia mikimotoi by real-time quantitative PCR. Harmful Algae, 17:83-91.