Cite this paper:
ZHAO Xinyu, TANG Xuexi, HU Shunxin, ZHONG Yi, QU Tongfei, WANG Ying. Photosynthetic response of floating Ulva prolifera to diurnal changes of in-situ environments on the sea surface[J]. HaiyangYuHuZhao, 2019, 37(2): 589-599

Photosynthetic response of floating Ulva prolifera to diurnal changes of in-situ environments on the sea surface

ZHAO Xinyu1, TANG Xuexi1,2, HU Shunxin1, ZHONG Yi1, QU Tongfei1, WANG Ying1
1 College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China;
2 Laboratory for Marine Ecology and Environmental Science, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266071, China
Abstract:
During yellow sea green tide outbreak, the thalli of Ulva prolifera drifted more than 350 km on the sea surface from offshore of Jiangsu Province to Qingdao city, where they were exposed to complex changes of local environments. The purpose of this study is to investigate the response of the thalli to diurnal changes of environments on the sea surface, and a sea surface environment simulator (SSES) was designed to simulate the natural environment of floating U. prolifera mat. A control experiment is designed in the laboratory, which was processed under suitable conditions (20℃ for temperature, 72 μmol photons/(m2·s) for light intensity and 30 for salinity), and an in-situ research was conducted to study the photosynthetic responses of floating U. prolifera to diurnal changes of environments. The results show that the photosynthetic efficiency of the thalli decreased gradually with time, and decreased rapidly after 14:00 local time (LT). After exposed to the environment on the sea surface for 6 h, the photosynthetic activity of the thalli decreased significantly. Furthermore, physiological-level and molecular-level experiments revealed that non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), cyclic electron flow (CEF) and energy redistribution between PSI and PSⅡ all played an important role in the strong photosynthetic plasticity of U. prolifera. NPQ is the most important photoprotective responses to environmental changes before 12:00 LT. The results also confirmed that the CEF and energy redistribution between PSI and PSⅡ are the main synergistic effects for the thalli to adapt to the environmental changes when the process NPQ cannot work. And the result can further reveal the reason why U. prolifera can adapt to the living condition of long distance drift on the sea surface. The findings of this research could provide a theoretical basis for explaining outbreaks of the green tide and instructing the management of the problem.
Key words:    photosynthetic system|floating Ulva prolifera|diurnal change|photosynthetic plasticity   
Received: 2018-04-16   Revised: 2018-05-04
Tools
PDF (994 KB) Free
Print this page
Add to favorites
Email this article to others
Authors
Articles by ZHAO Xinyu
Articles by TANG Xuexi
Articles by HU Shunxin
Articles by ZHONG Yi
Articles by QU Tongfei
Articles by WANG Ying
References:
Abdala-Díaz R T, Cabello-Pasini A, Pérez-Rodríguez E, Álvarez R M C, Figueroa F L. 2006. Daily and seasonal variations of optimum quantum yield and phenolic compounds in Cystoseira tamariscifolia (Phaeophyta).Marine Biology, 148(3):459-465.
Allen J F, Bennett J, Steinback K E, Arntzen C J. 1981. Chloroplast protein phosphorylation couples plastoquinone redox state to distribution of excitation energy between photosystems. Nature, 291(5810):25-29.
Bilger W, Björkman O. 1990. Role of the xanthophyll cycle in photoprotection elucidated by measurements of lightinduced absorbance changes, fluorescence and photosynthesis in leaves of Hedera canariensis.Photosynthesis Research, 25(3):173-185.
Finazzi G, Rappaport F, Furia A, Fleischmann M, Rochaix J D, Zito F, Forti G. 2002. Involvement of state transitions in the switch between linear and cyclic electron flow in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. EMBO Reports, 3(3):280-285.
Gao K S, Xu J T. 2008. Effects of solar UV radiation on diurnal photosynthetic performance and growth of Gracilaria lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta). European Journal of Phycology, 43(3):297-307.
Gao S, Shen S D, Wang G C, Niu J F, Lin A P, Pan G H. 2011. PSI-driven cyclic electron flow allows intertidal macroalgae Ulva sp. (Chlorophyta) to survive in desiccated conditions. Plant and Cell Physiology, 52(5):885-893.
Gao S, Wang G C. 2012. The enhancement of cyclic electron flow around photosystem I improves the recovery of severely desiccated Porphyra yezoensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta). Journal of Experimental Botany, 63(12):4 349-4 358.
Gylle A M, Isaksson D, Ekelund N G A. 2009. Research note:ecotype differentiation in qualitative content of water soluble organic compounds between marine and brackish Fucus vesiculosus L. (Phaeophyceae). Phycological Research, 57(2):127-130.
Horton P, Ruban A. 2005. Molecular design of the photosystem Ⅱ light-harvesting antenna:photosynthesis and photoprotection.Journal of Experimental Botany, 56(411):365-373.
Huang W, Fu P L, Jiang Y J, Zhang J L, Zhang S B, Hu H, Cao K F. 2013. Differences in the responses of photosystem I and photosystem Ⅱ of three tree species Cleistanthus sumatranus, Celtis philippensis and Pistacia weinmannifolia exposed to a prolonged drought in a tropical limestone forest. Tree Physiology, 33(2):211-220.
Iwai M, Takizawa K, Tokutsu R, Okamuro A, Takahashi Y, Minagawa J. 2010.Isolation of the elusive supercomplex that drives cyclic electron flow in photosynthesis. Nature, 464(7292):1 210-1 213.
Joët T, Cournac L, Peltier G, Havaux M. 2002. Cyclic electron flow around photosystem I in C3 plants. In vivo control by the redox state of chloroplasts and involvement of the NADH-dehydrogenase complex. Plant Physiology, 128(2):760-769.
Kawai Y, Wada A. 2007. Diurnal sea surface temperature variation and its impact on the atmosphere and ocean:a review. Journal of Oceanography, 63(5):721-744.
Li X P, Björkman O, Shih C, Grossman A R, Rosenquist M, Jansson S, Niyogi K K. 2000. A pigment-binding protein essential for regulation of photosynthetic light harvesting.Nature, 403(6768):391-395.
Li Z R, Wakao S, Fischer B B, Niyogi K K. 2009. Sensing and responding to excess light. Annual Review of Plant Biology, 60:239-260.
Lin A P, Shen S D, Wang G C, Yi Q Q, Qiao H J, Niu J F, Pan G H. 2011. Comparison of chlorophyll and photosynthesis parameters of floating and attached Ulva prolifera.Journal of Integrative Plant Biology, 53(1):25-34.
Liu D Y, Keesing J K, Dong Z J, Zhen Y, Di B P, Shi Y J, Fearns P, Shi P. 2010.Recurrence of the world's largest green-tide in 2009 in Yellow Sea, China:porphyra yezoensis aquaculture rafts confirmed as nursery for macroalgal blooms. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 60(9):1 423-1 432.
Liu F, Pang S J, Chopin T, Gao S Q, Shan T F, Zhao X B, Li J. 2013. Understanding the recurrent large-scale green tide in the Yellow Sea:temporal and spatial correlations between multiple geographical, aquacultural and biological factors. Marine Environmental Research, 83:38-47.
Livak K J, Schmittgen T D. 2001. Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2-ΔΔCT method. Methods, 25(4):402-408.
Owens T G. 1986. Light-harvesting function in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum Ⅱ. Distribution of excitation energy between the photosystems. Plant Physiology, 80(3):739-746.
Pearson G, Kautsky L, Serrão E. 2000. Recent evolution in Baltic Fucus vesiculosus:reduced tolerance to emersion stresses compared to intertidal (North Sea) populations.Marine Ecology Progress Series, 202:67-79.
Peers G, Truong T B, Ostendorf E, Busch A, Elrad D, Grossman A R, Hippler M, Niyogi K K. 2009. An ancient lightharvesting protein is critical for the regulation of algal photosynthesis. Nature, 462(7272):518-521.
Plouguerné E, Le Lann K, Connan S, Jechoux G, Deslandes E, Stiger-Pouvreau V. 2006. Spatial and seasonal variation in density, reproductive status, length and phenolic content of the invasive brown macroalga Sargassum muticum(Yendo) Fensholt along the coast of Western Brittany(France). Aquatic Botany, 85(4):337-344.
Ramus J, Rosenberg G. 1980. Diurnal photosynthetic performance of seaweeds measured under natural conditions. Marine Biology, 56(1):21-28.
Schreiber U, Gademann R, Ralph P, Larkum A W D. 1997. Assessment of photosynthetic performance of Prochloron in Lissoclinum patella in hospite by chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. Plant and Cell Physiology, 38(8):945-951.
Schreiber U. 2004. Pulse-amplitude-modulation (PAM)fluorometry and saturation pulse method:an overview. In:Papageorgiou G C, Govindjee eds. Chlorophyll a Fluorescence. Springer, Dordrecht. p.279-319.
Shikanai T. 2007. Cyclic electron transport around photosystem I:genetic approaches. Annual Review of Plant Biology, 58:199-217.
Sukenik A, Beardall J, Kromkamp J C, Kopecký J, Masojídek J, van Bergeijk S, Gabai S, Shaham E, Yamshon A. 2009. Photosynthetic performance of outdoor Nannochloropsis mass cultures under a wide range of environmental conditions. Aquatic Microbial Ecology, 56(2-3):297-308.
Wagner H, Jakob T, Wilhelm C. 2006. Balancing the energy flow from captured light to biomass under fluctuating light conditions. New Phytologist, 169(1):95-108.
Wang Y, Wang Y, Zhu L, Zhou B, Tang X X. 2012. Comparative studies on the ecophysiological differences of two green tide macroalgae under controlled laboratory conditions.PLoS One, 7(8):e38245, https://doi.org10.1371/journal.pone.0038245.
Wang Z L, Xiao J, Fan S L, Li Y, Liu X Q, Liu D Y. 2015. Who made the world's largest green tide in China?-an integrated study on the initiation and early development of the green tide in Yellow Sea. Limnology and Oceanography, 60(4):1 105-1 117.
Ye N H, Zhuang Z M, Jin X S, Wang Q Y, Zhang X W, Li D M, Wang H X, Mao Y Z, Jiang Z J, Li B, Xue Z X. 2008. China is on the track tackling Enteromorpha spp. forming green tide. In:Nature Precedings. Nature Publishing Group. 2008. Zhang X W, Ye N H, Mou S L, Xu D, Fan X. 2013. Occurrence of the PsbS and LhcSR products in the green alga Ulva linza and their correlation with excitation pressure. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 70:336-341.
Zhao J, Jiang P, Liu Z Y, Wei W, Lin H Z, Li F C, Wang J F, Song Q. 2013. The yellow sea green tides were dominated by one species, Ulva (Enteromorpha) prolifera, from 2007 to 2011. Chinese Science Bulletin, 58(19):2 298-2 302.
Zhao X Y, Tang X X, Zhang H X, Qu T F, Wang Y. 2016. Photosynthetic adaptation strategy of Ulva prolifera floating on the sea surface to environmental changes.Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 107:116-125.