Cite this paper:
Han Gil CHOI, Da Vine JEON, Seo Kyoung PARK, GAO Xu. Physiological differences in the growth and maturation of Eisenia bicyclis and Ecklonia cava gametophytes in Korea[J]. HaiyangYuHuZhao, 2019, 37(2): 657-664

Physiological differences in the growth and maturation of Eisenia bicyclis and Ecklonia cava gametophytes in Korea

Han Gil CHOI, Da Vine JEON, Seo Kyoung PARK, GAO Xu
Faculty of Biological Science and Sea & Biotech, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 54538, Korea;
The objective of this study was to examine the effects of temperature and light intensity on growth of female gametophytes of Eisenia bicyclis and Ecklonia cava and responses of these female gametophytes to Fe addition and daylength. Female gametophytes of each species were cultured at four temperatures (10, 15, 20, and 25℃) and under a combination of four light intensities (10, 20, 40, and 80 μmol photons/(m2·s)) with two temperatures (15 and 20℃ for Ei. bicyclis; 20 and 25℃ for Ec. cava) to clarify their optimal growth conditions. Growth and maturation of female gametophytes of these two species under a combination of five Fe-EDTA concentrations (0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 μmol/L) and three daylengths (10, 12, and 14 h) were also examined. The growth of Ei. bicyclis gametophyte was maximal at approximately 15-20℃, 20 μmol photons/(m2·s), Fe-EDTA concentration of 8 μmol/L and daylengths of 12-14 h. While Ec. cava gametophytes showed optimal growth at approximately 20-25℃, 20 μmol photons/(m2·s), FeEDTA concentration of 8 μmol/L and daylength of 14 h. Maturation of gametophytes was enhanced at Fe-EDTA concentration of 4 μmol/L for Ei. bicyclis and at 2 μmol/L for Ec. cava. In conclusion, optimal growth temperatures and Fe-EDTA concentrations for maturation of Ei. bicyclis and Ec. cava gametophytes were different. Higher optimal growth temperature for Ec. cava gametophytes may contribute to its wider geographical distribution compared to Ei. bicyclis which has restricted habitats in Korea. This suggests that addition of Fe ion could be used to recover beds of these two species in barren grounds of Korea.
Key words:    Ecklonia cava|Eisenia bicyclis|gametophyte|growth|maturation   
Received: 2018-04-09   Revised: 2018-06-01
PDF (456 KB) Free
Print this page
Add to favorites
Email this article to others
Articles by Han Gil CHOI
Articles by Da Vine JEON
Articles by Seo Kyoung PARK
Articles by GAO Xu
Altamirano M, Murakami A, Kawai H. 2003. Photosynthetic performance and pigment content of different developmental stages of Ecklonia cava (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae). Bot. Mar., 46(1):9-16.
Arakawa H, Ido M, Arimoto M, Agatsuma Y. 2013. Combined effects of high water temperature and low flow velocity on survival of brown algae Eisenia bicyclis and Ecklonia cava. Can. J. Plant Prot., 1(4):125-128.
Baba M. 2010.Effects of temperature and irradiance on the growth of gametophyte and young sporophyte of Eisenia bicyclis in laboratory culture. Rep. Mar. Ecol. Res. Inst., 13:75-82. (in Japanese with English abstract)
Breeman A M, Pakker H. 1994. Temperature ecotypes in seaweeds:adaptive significance and biogeographic implications. Bot. Mar., 37(3):171-180.
Cao S Q, Zhang Z Y, Li X L, You X C. 2014. Breeding and culture in cloned seedlings of sea weed Eisenia bicyclis. J.Dalian Ocean Univ., 29(5):425-430. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Choi G C, Lee H W, Hong B K. 2009. Marine algal flora and community structure in Dokdo, East Sea, Korea. Korean J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 42(5):503-508. (in Korean with English abstract)
Eriksson B K, Rubach A, Hillebrand H. 2006. Biotic habitat complexity controls species diversity and nutrient effects on net biomass production. Ecology, 87(1):246-254.
Gao X, Endo H, Nagaki M, Agatsuma Y. 2016. Growth and survival of juvenile sporophytes of the kelp Ecklonia cava in response to different nitrogen and temperature regimes.Fish. Sci., 82(4):623-629.
Hori T. 1993. An Illustrated Atlas of the Life History of Algae.Vol. 2 Brown and Red Algae. Uchida Rokakuho Publishing Co., Ltd, Tokyo, Japan. 345p.
Hwang E K, Gong Y G, Ha D S, Park C S. 2010.Nursery and main culture conditions for mass cultivation of the brown alga, Ecklonia cava Kjellman. Korean J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 43(6):687-692. (in Korean with English abstract)
Iwai H, Fukushima M, Yamamoto M, Motomura T. 2015. Seawater extractable organic matter (SWEOM) derived from a compost sample and its effect on the serving bioavailable Fe to the brown macroalga, Saccahrina japonica. Humic Substan. Res., 12:5-20. (in Japanese with English abstract)
Kang J W, Chung I K. 2015. Effects of temperature and light intensity on the gametophyte fragment growth of Ecklonia cava Kjellman (Laminariales, Phaeophyta). Korean J.Fish. Aquat. Sci., 48(5):704-711. (in Korean with English abstract)
Kang R S, Won K S, Hong K P, Kim J M. 2001. Population studies on the kelp Ecklonia cava and Eisenia bicyclis in Dokdo, Korea. Algae, 16(2):209-215.
Kawashima S. 1993. An Illustrated Guide to Japanese Laminariales. Kita Nihon Kaiyo Center, Sapporo. 206p.(in Japanese)
Kim M K, Kim K T. 2000. Studies on the seaweeds in the islands of Ullungdo and Dokdo:Ⅰ. Decrease of algal species compositions and changes of marine algal flora.Algae, 15(2):119-124.
Levitt G J. 1993. Primary production of Cape of Good Hope littoral and sublittoral seaweeds. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Afr., 48(2):339-350.
Lobban C S, Harrison P J. 1994. Seaweed Ecology and Physiology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 366p.
Lorentsen S H, Sjøtun K, Grémillet D. 2010.Multi-trophic consequences of kelp harvest. Biol. Conserv., 143(9):2 054-2 062.
Maegawa M, Kida W, Yokohama Y, Aruga Y. 1988. Comparative studies on critical light conditions for young Eisenia bicyclis and Ecklonia cava. Jpn. J. Phycol., 36(2):166-174.
Matsunaga K, Suzuki Y, Kuma K, Kudo I. 1994. Diffusion of Fe(Ⅱ) from an iron propagation cage and its effect on tissue iron and pigments of macroalgae on the cage. J.Appl. Phycol., 6(4):397-403.
Miki O, Nagai T, Marzuki M, Okumura C, Kosugi C, Kato T. 2016. Effects of Fe fertilizer eluate on the growth of Sargassum horneri at the germling and immature stages.J. Appl. Phycol., 28(3):1 775-1 782.
Morita T, Kurashima A, Maegawa M. 2003a. Temperature requirements for the growth and maturation of the gametophytes of Undaria pinnatifida and U. undarioides(Laminariales, Phaeophyceae). Phycol. Res., 51(3):154-160.
Morita T, Kurashima A, Maegawa M. 2003b. Temperature requirements for the growth of young sporophytes of Undaria pinnatifida and Undaria undarioides(Laminariales, Phaeophyceae). Phycol. Res., 51(4):266-270.
Motomura T, Sakai Y. 1981. Effect of chelated iron in culture media on oogenesis in Laminaria angustata. Bull. Jap.Soc. Sci. Fish., 47(12):1 535-1 540. (in Japanese with English abstract)
Motomura T, Sakai Y. 1984. Regulation of gametogenesis of Laminaria and Desmarestia (Phaeophyta) by iron and boron. Jpn. J. Phycol., 32(3):209-215.
Muraoka D. 2008. Eisenia bicyclis bed coverage off Oshika Peninsula, Japan, in relation to sporophyte survival and Strongylocentrotus nudus abundance. J. Appl. Phycol., 20(5):845-851.
Nagai T, Miki O, Okumura C. 2014. Effects of chelated iron on the growth of Sargassaceae species at the germling and immature stages. J. Water Environ. Technol., 12(3):285-294.
Nakayama Y, Arai S. 1999. Grazing of the brown alga Ecklonia cava by three herbivorous fishes on the coast of Nakagi, South Izu, central Japan. Jpn. J. Phycol., 47(2):105-112.
Novaczek I. 1984. Response of gametophytes of Ecklonia radiata (Laminariales) to temperature in saturating light.Mar. Biol., 82(3):241-245.
Oh J C, Yu O H, Choi H G. 2015. Interactive effects of increased temperature and pCO2 concentration on the growth of a brown algae Ecklonia cava in the sporophyte and gametophyte stages. Ocean Polar Res., 37(3):201-209. (in Korean with English abstract)
Rothäusler E, Gómez I, Karsten U, Tala F, Thiel M. 2011. Physiological acclimation of floating Macrocystis pyrifera to temperature and irradiance ensures long-term persistence at the sea surface at mid-latitudes. J. Exp.Mar. Biol. Ecol., 405(1-2):33-41.
Serisawa Y, Yokohama Y, Aruga Y, Tanaka J. 2002. Growth of Ecklonia cava (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) sporophytes transplanted to a locality with different temperature conditions. Phycol. Res., 50(3):201-207.
Sokal R R, Rohlf F J. 1995. Biometry:the Principles and Practices of Statistics in Biological Research. 3rd edn.W.H. Freeman and Company, New York. 887p.
Taniguchi K, Akiyama K. 1982. Effects of water temperature, light intensity and photoperiod on the growth and maturation of the gametophyte of Eisenia bicyclis(Kjellman) Setchell. Bull. Tohoku Reg. Fish. Res. Lab., 45:55-59. (in Japanese with English abstract)
Terawaki T, Hasegawa H, Arai S, Ohno M. 2001. Managementfree techniques for restoration of Eisenia and Ecklonia beds along the central Pacific coast of Japan. J. Appl.Phycol., 13(1):13-17.
Wi M Y, Hwang E K, Kim S C, Hwang M S, Baek J M, Park C S. 2008. Regeneration and maturation induction for the free-living gametophytes of Ecklonia cava Kjellman(Laminariales, Phaeophyta). J. Kor Fish. Soc., 41(5):381-388. (in Korean with English abstract)
Wiencke C, Clayton M N, Gómez I, Iken K, Lüder U H, Amsler C D, Karsten U, Hanelt D, Bischof K, Dunton K. 2007. Life strategy, ecophysiology and ecology of seaweeds in polar waters. Rev. Environ. Sci. Bio/Technol., 6(1-3):95-126.
Yoshida T. 1970. On the productivity of the Eisenia bicyclis community. Bull. Tohoku Reg. Fish. Res. Lab., 30:107-112. (in Japanese with English abstract)
Yoshida T. 1998. Marine Algae of Japan. Uchida Roukakuho Publishing, Tokyo. 347p.