Cite this paper:
DOU Xiang, MENG Fanping, DUAN Weiyan, LIU Qunqun, LI Hao, DU Shuhao, PENG Xiaoling. Growth inhibition and oxidative stress in two species of marine diatoms exposed to 1-phenylethanol[J]. HaiyangYuHuZhao, 2019, 37(4): 1342-1352

Growth inhibition and oxidative stress in two species of marine diatoms exposed to 1-phenylethanol

DOU Xiang1, MENG Fanping1,2, DUAN Weiyan1, LIU Qunqun1, LI Hao1, DU Shuhao1, PENG Xiaoling1
1 Key Laboratory of Marine Environment and Ecology, Ministry of Education, Qingdao 266000, China;
2 College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266000, China
1-phenylethanol (1-PEA) is a flavor extensively used in the production of cosmetics, beverages, and food. The release of 1-PEA into coastal environments has aroused great concern. However, its potential effects on marine organisms are still unknown. In order to provide a better understanding of the ecological risks of 1-PEA in marine environments, this study determined the toxic effects of 1-PEA on two marine diatoms (Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Skeletonema costatum). The diatoms were grown in culture medium containing different concentrations of 1-PEA for 96 h. The contents of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), were measured at the end of the exposure period. 1-PEA was shown to significantly inhibit the growth of diatoms, with 96-h EC50 values of 257.14 mg/Land 126.46 mg/L in P. tricornutum and S. costatum, respectively. In P. tricornutum, the levels of SOD, CAT, GPx, GSH, and MDA were stimulated only when 1-PEA concentrations were close to or greater than the 96-h EC50 value. However, in S. costatum, the activities of SOD and CAT, and the syntheses of two chlorophylls were inhibited even at an exposure concentration below the 96-h EC50 value. Taken together, these findings indicate a potential ecological risk by discharging 1-PEA into coastal areas and its species-specific toxic effects on marine organisms.
Key words:    Phaeodactylum tricornutum|Skeletonema costatum|1-phenylethanol (1-PEA)|growth inhibition|oxidative stress   
Received: 2018-08-15   Revised: 2018-09-06
PDF (602 KB) Free
Print this page
Add to favorites
Email this article to others
Articles by DOU Xiang
Articles by MENG Fanping
Articles by DUAN Weiyan
Articles by LIU Qunqun
Articles by LI Hao
Articles by DU Shuhao
Articles by PENG Xiaoling
Ali M B, Yu K W, Hahn E J, Paek K Y. 2005. Differential responses of anti-oxidants enzymes, lipoxygenase activity, Ascorbate content and the production of saponins in tissue-cultured root of mountain Panax ginseng C. A.
Mayer and Panax quinquefolium L. in bioreactor subjected to methyl jasmonate stress. Plant Science, 169(1):83-92.
Ames B N, Shigenaga M K, Hagen T M. 1993. Oxidants, antioxidants, and the degenerative diseases of aging.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 90(17):7 915-7 922.
Api A M, Belsito D, Botelho D, et al. 2017. RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, α-methylbenzyl alcohol, CAS registry number 98-85-1. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 110, S569-S576.
Bester K, Hühnerfuss H, Lange W, Rimkus G G, Theobald N. 1998. Results of non target screening of lipophilic organic pollutants in the German Bight Ⅱ:polycyclic musk fragrances. Water Research, 32(6):1 857-1 863.
Blokhina O, Fagerstedt K V. 2010. Reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide in plant mitochondria:origin and redundant regulatory systems. Physiologia Plantarum, 138(4):447-462.
Brelsford R. 2018. CNOOC-Shell JV commission Nanhai ethylene expansion. (2018-05-02).
Brown R. 2000. Dow to build world-scale POSM plant. (2000-07-16).
Chen S Y. 1991. Injury of membrane lipid peroxidation to plant cell. Plant Physiology Communications, 27(2):84-90.
Cheng P, Arthur D M, Sichani H T, Xia Q, Ng J C. 2013.Assessing benzene-induced toxicity on wild type Euglena gracilis Z and its mutant strain SMZ. Chemosphere, 93(10):2 381-2 389.
Cheng P, Lee J W, Sichani H T, Ng J C. 2015. Toxic effects of individual and combined effects of BTEX on Euglena gracilis. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 284:10-18.
Claessens M, Vanhaecke L, Wille K, Janssen C R. 2013.Janssen C R. Emerging contaminants in Belgian marine waters:Single toxicant and mixture risks of pharmaceuticals. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 71(1-2):41-50.
Dao L, Grigoryeva T, Laikov A, Devjatijarov R, Ilinskaya O. 2014. Full-scale bioreactor pretreatment of highly toxic wastewater from styrene and propylene oxide production.Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 108:195-202.
Davies K J A. 1995. Oxidative stress:the paradox of aerobic life. Biochemical Society Symposia, 61:1-31.
De Zwart L L, Venhorst J, Groot M, Commandeur J N M, Hermanns R C A, Meerman J H N, Van Baar B L M, Vermeulen N P E. 1997. Simultaneous determination of eight lipid peroxidation degradation products in urine of rats treated with carbon tetrachloride using gas chromatography with electron-capture detection. Journal of Chromatography B:Biomedical Sciences and Applications, 694(2):277-287.
Duan W Y, Meng F P, Lin Y F, Wang G S. 2017. Toxicological effects of phenol on four marine microalgae.Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 52:170-176.
ECOTOX. 2018a. ECOTOXicology database:nitrobenzen.Environmental Protection Agency, U. S.
ECOTOX. 2018b. ECOTOXicology database:tetrachloroethylene. Environmental Protection Agency, U. S.
ECOTOX. 2018c. ECOTOXicology database:dichloromethane. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S.
ECOTOX. 2018d. ECOTOXicology database:2-butanone.
Environmental Protection Agency, U. S. EN International Organization for Standardization (EN ISO). 2016. ISO 10253:2016. Water quality-marine algal growth inhibition test with Skeletonema sp. and Phaeodactylum tricornutum.
Engelhardt G. 2006. In vivo micronucleus test in mice with 1-phenylethanol. Archives of Toxicology, 80(12):868-872.
Esterbauer H, Schaur R J, Zollner H. 1991. Chemistry and biochemistry of 4-hydroxynonenal, malonaldehyde and related aldehydes. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 11(1):81-128.
European Chemicals Agency (ECHA). 2017. Brief Profile:1-phenylethanol. (2017-09-09).
Everchem. 2017. Repsol licenses POSM technology repsol licences PO and styrene technology to Tianjin Bohua.(2017-01-10).
Fawley M W. 1989. A new form of chlorophyll c involved in light-harvesting. Plant Physiology, 91(2):727-732.
Finney D J. 1971. Probit Analysis. 3rd edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Gao Q T, Wong Y S, Tam N F. 2017. Antioxidant responses of different microalgal species to nonylphenol-induced oxidative stress. Journal of Applied Phycology, 29(3):1 317-1 329.
Gatermann R, Biselli S, Hühnerfuss H, Rimkus G G, Hecker M, Karbe L. 2002. Synthetic musks in the environment.Part 1:species-dependent bioaccumulation of polycyclic and nitro musk fragrances in freshwater fish and mussels.Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 42(4):437-446.
Hörnström E. 1990. Toxicity test with algae-a discussion on the batch method. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 20(3):343-353.
Janero D R. 1990. Malondialdehyde and thiobarbituric acidreactivity as diagnostic indices of lipid peroxidation and peroxidative tissue injury. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 9(6):515-540.
Jeffrey S W, Humphrey G F. 1975. New spectrophotometric equations for determining chlorophylls a, b, c1 and c2 in higher plants, algae and natural phytoplankton. Biochemie Und Physiologie der Pflanzen, 167(2):191-194.
Lemmer S, Klomp R, Ruemekorf R, Scholz R. 2001.Preconcentration of wastewater through the Niro freeze concentration process. Chemical Engineering & Technology, 24(5):485-488.
Libralato G, Ghirardini A V, Avezzù F. 2010. Seawater ecotoxicity of monoethanolamine, diethanolamine and triethanolamine. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 176(1-3):535-539.
Livingstone D R. 2001. Contaminant-stimulated reactive oxygen species production and oxidative damage in aquatic organisms. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 42(8):656-666.
Lobo V, Patil A, Phatak A, Chandra N. 2010. Free radicals, antioxidants and functional foods:impact on human health. Pharmacognosy Reviews, 4(8):118.
Michiels C, Raes M, Toussaint O, Remacle J. 1994. Importance of Se-glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and Cu/Zn-SOD for cell survival against oxidative stress. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 17(3):235-248.
Morelli E, Scarano G. 2004. Copper-induced changes of nonprotein thiols and antioxidant enzymes in the marine microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Plant Science, 167(2):289-296.
Nakata H, Sasaki H, Takemura A, Yoshioka M, Tanabe S, Kannan K. 2007. Bioaccumulation, temporal trend, and geographical distribution of synthetic musks in the marine environment. Environmental Science & Technology, 41(7):2 216-2 222.
Nakata H. 2005. Occurrence of synthetic musk fragrances in marine mammals and sharks from Japanese coastal waters. Environmental Science & Technology, 39(10):3 430-3 434.
Nie X P, Liu B Y, Yu H J, Liu W Q, Yang Y F. 2013. Toxic effects of erythromycin, ciprofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole exposure to the antioxidant system in Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. Environmental Pollution, 172:23-32.
Niedernhofer L J, Daniels J S, Rouzer C A, Greene R E, Marnett L J. 2003. Malondialdehyde, a product of lipid peroxidation, is mutagenic in human cells. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 278(33):31 426-31 433.
Pavlić Ž, Vidaković-Cifrek Ž, Puntarić D. 2005. Toxicity of surfactants to green microalgae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Scenedesmus subspicatus and to marine diatoms Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Skeletonema costatum. Chemosphere, 61(8):1 061-1 068.
Pesticide Action Network (PAN). 2018a. PAN Pesticide Database:3, 4-Dichloraniline. Pesticide Action Network North America, US.
Pesticide Action Network (PAN). 2018b. PAN Pesticide Database:Styrene. Pesticide Action Network North America, US.
Rimkus G G, Wolf M. 1995. Nitro musk fragrances in biota from freshwater and marine environment. Chemosphere, 30(4):641-651.
Roy G, Sarma B K, Phadnis P P, Mugesh G. 2005. Seleniumcontaining enzymes in mammals:Chemical perspectives.Journal of Chemical Sciences, 117(4):287-303.
Ruas C B G, Carvalho C S D, De Araújo H S S, Espíndola E L G, Fernandes M N. 2008. Oxidative stress biomarkers of exposure in the blood of cichlid species from a metalcontaminated river. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 71(1):86-93.
Sabatini S E, Juárez A B, Eppis M R, Bianchi L, Luquet C M, De Molina M D C R. 2009. Oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses in two green microalgae exposed to copper. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 72(4):1 200-1 206.
Sahoo A, Chainy G B N. 1997. Alterations in the activities of cerebral antioxidant enzymes of rat are related to aging.International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, 15(8):939-948.
SIDS Initial Assessment Profile (SIAM). 2003. OECD Existing Chemicals Database.
Sigma-Aldrich. 2012. Material Safety Data Sheet:1-Phenylethanol.
Toxicology Data Network (TOXNET). 2018a. Hazardous Substances Data Bank:1, 2-dichloroethane. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
Toxicology Data Network (TOXNET). 2018b. Hazardous Substances Data Bank:1, 1-dichloroethylene. U.S.National Library of Medicine.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). 1980.Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Chlorinated Benzenes.(EPA-440/5-80-028).
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). 2012.OCSPP 850.4500:Algal Toxicity (EPA 712-C-006).
Valavanidis A, Vlahogianni T, Dassenakis M, Scoullos M. 2006. Molecular biomarkers of oxidative stress in aquatic organisms in relation to toxic environmental pollutants.Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 64(2):178-189.
Van Raamsdonk J M, Hekimi S. 2012. Superoxide dismutase is dispensable for normal animal lifespan. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of Sciences of the United States of America, 109(15):5 785-5 790.
Veith T, Büchel C. 2007. The monomeric photosystem I-complex of the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum binds specific fucoxanthin chlorophyll proteins (FCPs) as light-harvesting complexes. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Bioenergetics, 1767(12):1 428-1 435.
Voitkun V, Zhitkovich A. 1999. Analysis of DNA-protein crosslinking activity of malondialdehyde in vitro.Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis, 424(1-2):97-106.
Wang H Y, Zeng X B, Guo S Y, Li Z T. 2008. Effects of magnetic field on the antioxidant defense system of recirculation-cultured Chlorella vulgaris.Bioelectromagnetics, 29(1):39-46.
World Health Organization (WHO). 1987. Environmental Health Criteria. 71:Pentachlorophenol. World Health Organization, Geneva. 460p.
Yamano N, Mizoguchi T, Fujii R. 2018. The pH-dependent photophysical properties of chlorophyll-c bound to the light-harvesting complex from a diatom, Chaetoceros calcitrans. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A:Chemistry, 358:379-385.
Zhou J Y, Duan S S. 2016. Joint toxic effect of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorononanoic acid on two marine algae.Ecological Science, 35(6):84-90. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Zhou J, Yang C Y, Wang J H, Sun P C, Fan P, Tian K, Liu S J, Xia C H. 2013. Toxic effects of environment-friendly antifoulant nonivamide on Phaeodactylum tricornutum.Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 32(4):802-809.