Cite this paper:
GUO Jie, ZHANG Tianlong, ZHANG Xi, LIU Genwang. Impact of emulsification of crude oil on normalized radar cross section[J]. HaiyangYuHuZhao, 2020, 38(1): 42-54

Impact of emulsification of crude oil on normalized radar cross section

GUO Jie1,2,3, ZHANG Tianlong1,4, ZHANG Xi5, LIU Genwang5
1 CAS Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research(YIC), Chinese Academy of Sciences(CAS), Yantai 264003, China;
2 Shandong Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes, YICCAS, Yantai 264003, China;
3 Center for Ocean Mega-Science, CAS, Qingdao 266071, China;
4 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;
5 First Institute of Oceanography(FIO), Ministry of Natural Resources(MNR), Qingdao 266061, China
Abstract:
The emulsification of crude oil is caused by the oil flowing into the water, resulting in the increase of oil film tension, viscosity, water content, and volume, which brings great harm to the marine ecological environment and difficulties for the cleanup of marine emergency equipment. The realization observation of emulsification crude oil will increase the response speed of marine emergency response. Therefore, we set up crude oil emulsification samples to study the physical property in laboratory and conducted radar measurements at different incidence angles in outdoor. The radar is C band in resolution of 0.7 m by 0.7 m. A fully polarimetric scatterometer (HH, VV, and VH/HV) is mounted at 1.66 m (minimum altitude) height at an incidence angle between 35° and 60°. An asphalt content of less than 3% crude oil and the filtered seawater were used to the outdoor emulsification scattering experiment. The measurement results are as follows. The water content can be used to describe the process of emulsification and it is easy to measure. Wind speed, asphalt content, seawater temperature, and photo-oxidation affect the emulsifying process of crude oil, and affects the normalized radar cross section (NRCS) of oil film but wind is not the dominant factor. It is the first time to find that the emulsification of crude oil results in an increase of NRCS.
Key words:    emulsification of crude oil|normalized radar cross section (NRCS)|water content|wind speed|temperature   
Received: 2018-10-23   Revised:
Tools
PDF (2147 KB) Free
Print this page
Add to favorites
Email this article to others
Authors
Articles by GUO Jie
Articles by ZHANG Tianlong
Articles by ZHANG Xi
Articles by LIU Genwang
References:
Ariffin T S T, Yahya E, Husin H. 2016. The rheology of light crude oil and water-in-oil-emulsion. Procedia Engineering, 148:1 149-1 155.
Berridge S A, Dean R A, Fallows R G, Fish A. 1986. The properties of persistent oils at sea. Journal of the Institute of Petroleum, 54:300-309.
Bora M A. 1991. Water-in-oil emulsification:a physicochemical study. In:International Oil Spill Conference.American Petroleum Institute, Washington, DC. p.483-488.
Brekke C, Solberg A. 2005. Oil spill detection by satellite remote sensing. Remote sensing of Environment, 95(1):1-13.
Daling S, Brandvik J. 1988. A study of the formation and stability of water-in-oil emulsions. In:Proceedings of the 11th Arctic Marine Oilspill Program Technical Seminar.Environment Canada, Ottawa. p.153-170.
De Loor G P, Van Hulten H W B. 1998. Microwave measurements over the North Sea. Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 13(1-4):119-131.
Del Frate F, Petrocchi A, Lichtenegger J, Calabresi G. 2000.Neural networks for oil spill detection using ERS-SAR data. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 38(5):2 282-2 287, https://doi.org/10.1109/36.868885.
Fingas M F, Brown C E. 1997. Review of oil spill remote sensing. Spill Science & Technology Bulletin, 4(4):199-208.
Fingas M F, Fieldhouse B. 1999. Water-in-oil emulsions results of formation studies and applicability to oil spill modelling. Spill Science & Technology Bulletin, 5(1):81-91.
Fingas M, Fieldhouse B. 2003. Studies of the formation process of water-in-oil emulsions. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 47(9-12):369-396, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0025-326X(03)00212-1.
Fingas M, Fieldhouse B. 2004. Formation of water-in-oil emulsions and application to oil spill modelling. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 107(1-2):37-50, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2003.11.008.
Fingas M. 1995. Water-in-oil emulsion formation:a review of physics and mathematical modelling. Spill Science & Technology Bulletin, 2(1):55-59, https://doi.org/10.1016/1353-2561(95)94483-Z.
Garcia-Pineda O, Zimmer B, Howard M, Pichel W, Li X F, MacDonald I R. 2009. Using SAR images to delineate ocean oil slicks with a texture-classifying neural network algorithm (TCNNA). Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing, 35(5):411-421.
Guo J, Meng J M, He Y J. 2016. Scattering model research based on two-dimensional laser observation of spilled oil and emulsification processes. Marine Sciences, 40(2):159-164. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Johansen E J, Skjärvö M, Lund T, Sjöblom J, Söderlund H, Boström G. 1988. Water-in-crude oil emulsions from the Norwegian continental shelf Part I. Formation, characterization and stability correlations. Colloids and Surfaces, 34(4):353-370.
Karantzalos K, Argialas D. 2008. Automatic detection and tracking of oil spills in SAR imagery with level set segmentation. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 29(21):6 281-6 296, https://doi.org/10.1080/01431160802175488.
Khan B A, Akhtar N, Khan H M S, Waseem K, Mahmood T, Rasul A, Iqbal M, Khan H. 2011. Basics of pharmaceutical emulsions:a review. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 5(25):2 715-2 725, http://doi.org/10.5897/AJPP11.698.
Li Y. 2014. Research on Microwave Scattering Properties of Oil Spill Based on Experimental method. University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu.p.1-85. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Liu P, Zhao C F, Li X F, He M X, Pichel W. 2010. Identification of ocean oil spills in SAR imagery based on fuzzy logic algorithm. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 31(17-18):4 819-4 833, https://doi.org/10.1080/0143116 1.2010.485147.
Mackay D, Zagorski W. 1982. Water-in-oil emulsions:a stability hypothesis. In:Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Arctic Marine Oilspill Program Technical Seminar.Environment Canada, Ottawa. p.61-74.
Neuman H J, Paczyńska-Lahme B. 1988. Petroleum emulsions, micro-emulsions, and micellar solutions. In:Hummel K, Schurz J eds. Dispersed Systems. Steinkopff Verlag, Darmstadt. p.123-126.
Sjoblom J, Urdahl O, Borve K G N. 1990. Stabilization and destabilization of water-in-oil emulsions from the Norwegian continental shelf:correlation with model systems. Advances in Colloids and Polymer Science, 41(1992):241-271.
Solberg A H S, Brekke C, Husoy P O. 2007. Oil spill detection in radarsat and envisat SAR images. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 45(3):746-755.
Thingstad T, Pengerud B. 1983. The formation of ‘chocolate mousse’ from Stafjord crude off and seawater. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 14(6):214-216.
Topouzelis K N. 2008. Oil Spill Detection by SAR images:dark formation detection, feature extraction and classification algorithms. Sensors, 8(10):6 642-6 659.
Wong S F, Lim J S, Dol S S. 2015. Crude oil emulsion:A review on formation, classification and stability of waterin-oil emulsions. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 135:498-504.
Wu J. 1986. Research on microwave backscattering of seasurface with oil slick. Chinese Journal of Radio Science, 3(1):32-44. https://doi.org/10.13443/j.cjors. 1986.03.003.(in Chinese with English abstract)
Yan Z Y, Xu H L. 2002. Review of the studies on emulsification of spilled oil. Environmental Protection in Transportation, 23(2):1-6, 26. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Yang Y Z, Lu G X, Zhong Q Y, Huang Y L, Zhou Z Z. 1998. A study on measuring the thickness of oil film on the sea by airborne remote sensing. Remote Sensing of Environment China, 8(3):222-231. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Yue H S, Guo J, Mu Y K, Zhang T L. 2017. Detection of oil film roughness of 3D laser scanner. Journal of Guangxi Academy of Sciences, 33(4):298-302, https://doi.org/10.13657/j.cnki.gxkxyxb.20171127.002. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Zhang B, Perrie W, Li X F, Pichel W G. 2011. Mapping sea surface oil slicks using RADARSAT-2 quad-polarization SAR image. Geophysical Research Letters, 38(10):L10602, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011GL047013.