Cite this paper:
LIU He, LIAO Renqiang, ZHANG Lipeng, LI Congying, SUN Weidong. Plate subduction, oxygen fugacity, and mineralization[J]. HaiyangYuHuZhao, 2020, 38(1): 64-74

Plate subduction, oxygen fugacity, and mineralization

LIU He1,2,3, LIAO Renqiang1,2,3,4, ZHANG Lipeng1,2,3, LI Congying1,2,3, SUN Weidong1,2,3,4
1 Key Laboratory of Marine Geology and Environment, Center of Deep-Sea Research, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;
2 Laboratory for Marine Mineral Resources, Laboratory for Marine Biology and Biotechnology, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266071, China;
3 Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;
4 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Plate subduction is the largest natural factory that processes elements, which controls recycling and mineralization of a variety of elements. There are three major ore deposit belts in the world:the circumPacific, the central Asian, and the Tethys belts. All the three belts are closely associated with plate subductions, the mechanism remains obscure. We approached this problem from systematic studies on the behaviours of elements during geologic processes. This contribution summaries the recent progress of our research group. Our results suggest that porphyry Cu deposits form through partial melting of subducted young oceanic crust under oxygen fugacities higher than △FMQ~+1.5, which is promoted after the elevation of atmospheric oxygen at ca. 550 Ma. Tin deposits are associated with reducing magmatic rocks formed as a consequence of slab rollback. The Neo-Tethys tectonic regime hosts more than 60% of the world's total Sn reserves. This is due to the reducing environment formed during the subduction of organic rich sediments. For the same reason, porphyry Cu deposits formed in the late stages during the closure of the Neo-Tethys Ocean. Tungsten deposits are also controlled by slab rollback, but is not so sensitive to oxygen fugacity. Subduction related W/Sn deposits are mostly accompanied by abundant accessory fluorites due to the breakdown of phengite and apatite. Decomposition of phengite is also significant for hard rock lithium deposits, whereas orogenic belt resulted from plate subduction promote the formation of Li brine deposits. Cretaceous red bed basins near the Nanling region are favorable for Li brines. Both Mo and Re are enriched in the oxidationreduction cycle during surface processes, and may get further enriched once Mo-, Re-enriched sediments are subducted and involved in magmatism. During plate subduction, Mo and Re fractionate from each other. Molybdenum is mainly hosted in porphyry Mo deposits and to a less extent, porphyry Cu-Mo deposits, whereas Re is predominantly hosted in porphyry Cu-Mo deposits and sedimentary sulfide deposits.
Key words:    plate subduction|oxygen fugacity|ore deposits|geochemical behaviors|subduction factory   
Received: 2018-11-27   Revised:
PDF (1566 KB) Free
Print this page
Add to favorites
Email this article to others
Articles by LIU He
Articles by LIAO Renqiang
Articles by ZHANG Lipeng
Articles by LI Congying
Articles by SUN Weidong
Ballard J R, Palin J M, Campbell I H. 2002. Relative oxidation states of magmas inferred from Ce(IV)/Ce(III) in zircon:application to porphyry copper deposits of northern Chile.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 144(3):347-364.
Ballhaus C. 1993. Redox states of lithospheric and asthenospheric upper mantle. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 114(3):331-348.
Brandon A D, Draper D S. 1996. Constraints on the origin of the oxidation state of mantle overlying subduction zones:an example from Simcoe, Washington, USA. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 60(10):1 739-1 749.
Carlile J C, Mitchell A H G. 1994. Magmatic arcs and associated gold and copper mineralization in Indonesia.Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 50(1-3):91-142.
Chen Y J. 2013. The development of continental collision metallogeny and its application. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 29(1):1-17. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Chen Y X, Li H, Sun W D, Ireland T, Tian X F, Hu Y B, Yang W B, Chen C, Xu D R. 2016. Generation of Late Mesozoic Qianlishan A2-type granite in Nanling Range, South China:implications for Shizhuyuan W-Sn mineralization and tectonic evolution. Lithos, 266-267:435-452.
Cheng Y B, Mao J W, Liu P. 2016. Geodynamic setting of Late Cretaceous Sn-W mineralization in southeastern Yunnan and northeastern Vietnam. Solid Earth Sciences, 1(3):79-88.
Chiaradia M, Fontboté L, Beate B. 2004. Cenozoic continental arc magmatism and associated mineralization in Ecuador.Mineralium Deposita, 39(2):204-222.
Chiaradia M. 2014. Copper enrichment in arc magmas controlled by overriding plate thickness. Nature Geoscience, 7(1):43-46.
Cooke D R, Hollings P, Walsh J L. 2005. Giant porphyry deposits:characteristics, distribution, and tectonic controls. Economic Geology, 100(5):801-818.
Defant M J, Drummond M S. 1990. Derivation of some modern arc magmas by melting of young subducted lithosphere. Nature, 347(6294):662-665.
Esser B K, Turekian K K. 1993. The osmium isotopic composition of the continental crust. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 57(13):3 093-3 104.
Evans K A, Elburg M A, Kamenetsky V S. 2012. Oxidation state of subarc mantle. Geology, 40(9):783-786.
Feng J R, Mao J W, Pei R F, Zhou Z H, Yang Z X. 2010.SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating and geochemical characteristics of Laojunshan granite intrusion from the Wazha tungsten deposit, Yunnan Province and their implications for petrogenesis. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 26(3):845-857. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Guo J, Zhang R Q, Li C Y, Sun W D, Hu Y B, Kang D M, Wu J D. 2018a. Genesis of the Gaosong Sn-Cu deposit, Gejiu district, SW China:constraints from in situ LA-ICP-MS cassiterite U-Pb dating and trace element fingerprinting.Ore Geology Reviews, 92:627-642.
Guo J, Zhang R Q, Sun W D, Ling M X, Hu Y B, Wu K, Luo M, Zhang L C. 2018b. Genesis of tin-dominant polymetallic deposits in the Dachang district, South China:insights from cassiterite U-Pb ages and trace element compositions. Ore Geology Reviews, 95:863-879.
Hacker B R, Abers G A, Peacock S M. 2003. Subduction factory 1. Theoretical mineralogy, densities, seismic wave speeds, and H2O contents. Journal of Geophysic Research:Solid Earth, 108(B1):2 029,
Hacker B R, Abers G A. 2012. Subduction Factory 5:unusually low Poisson's ratios in subduction zones from elastic anisotropy of peridotite. Journal of Geophysic Research:Solid Earth, 117(B6):B06308,
Hou Z Q, Yang Z M, Lu Y J, Kemp A, Zheng Y C, Li Q Y, Tang J X, Yang Z S, Duan L F. 2015. A genetic linkage between subduction-and collision-related porphyry Cu deposits in continental collision zones. Geology, 43(3):247-250.
Hou Z Q, Yang Z M, Qu X M, Meng X J, Li Z Q, Beaudoin G, Rui Z Y, Gao Y F, Zaw K. 2009. The Miocene Gangdese porphyry copper belt generated during post-collisional extension in the Tibetan Orogen. Ore Geology Reviews, 36(1-3):25-51.
Hou Z Q, Zhang H R. 2015. Geodynamics and metallogeny of the eastern Tethyan metallogenic domain. Ore Geology Reviews, 70:346-384.
Hu X Y, Bi X W, Hu R Z, Cai G S, Chen Y W. 2016. Tin partition behavior and implications for the Furong tin ore formation associated with peralkaline intrusive granite in Hunan Province, China. Acta Geochimica, 35(2):138-147.
Hua R M, Chen P R, Zhang W L, Yao J M, Lin J F, Zhang Z S, Gu S Y, Liu X D, Qi H W. 2005. Metallogenesis related to mesozoic granitoids in the Nanling Range, South China and their geodynamic settings. Acta Geologica Sinica, 79(6):810-820.
Ishihara S, Hashimoto M, Machida M. 2000. Magnetite/ilmenite-series classification and magnetic susceptibility of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Batholiths in Peru. Resource Geology, 50(2):123-129.
Ishihara S, Murakami H. 2006. Fractionated ilmenite-series granites in Southwest Japan:source magma for REESn-W mineralizations. Resource Geology, 56(3):245-256.
Ishihara S. 1998. Granitoid series and mineralization in the Circum-Pacific Phanerozoic granitic belts. Resource Geology, 48(4):219-224.
Jenkyns H C. 2010. Geochemistry of oceanic anoxic events.Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 11(3):Q03004,
Jiang S Y, Ling H F, Zhao K D, Zhu M Y, Yang J H, Chen Y Q. 2008. A discussion on Mo isotopic compositions of black shale and Ni-Mo sulfide bed in the early Cambrian Niutitang Formation in south China. Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica, 27(4):341-345. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Jiang S Y, Peng N J, Huang L C, Xu Y M, Zhan G L, Dan X H. 2015. Geological characteristic and ore genesis of the giant tungsten deposits from the Dahutang oreconcentrated district in northern Jiangxi Province. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 31(3):639-655. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Jugo P J, Wilke M, Botcharnikov R E. 2010. Sulfur K-edge XANES analysis of natural and synthetic basaltic glasses:implications for S speciation and S content as function of oxygen fugacity. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 74(20):5 926-5 938.
Jugo P J. 2009. Sulfur content at sulfide saturation in oxidized magmas. Geology, 37(5):415-418.
Kelley K A, Cottrell E. 2009. Water and the oxidation state of subduction zone magmas. Science, 325(5940):605-607.
Kesler S E. 1997. Metallogenic evolution of convergent margins:selected ore deposit models. Ore Geology Reviews, 12(3):153-171.
Korzhinsky M, Tkachenko S, Shmulovich K, Taran Y A, Steinberg G. 1994. Discovery of a pure rhenium mineral at Kudriavy volcano. Nature, 369(6475):51-52.
Lee C T A, Luffi P, Chin E J, Bouchet R, Dasgupta R, Morton D M, Le Roux V, Yin Q Z, Jin D. 2012. Copper systematics in arc magmas and implications for crust-mantle differentiation. Science, 336(6077):64-68.
Lehmann B, Harmanto. 1990. Large-scale tin depletion in the Tanjungpandan Tin Granite, Belitung Island, Indonesia.Economic Geology, 85(1):99-111.
Lehmann B, Ishihara S, Michel H, Miller J, Rapela C W, Sanchez A, Tistl M, Winkelmann L. 1990. The Bolivian Tin Province and Regional Tin Distribution in the Central Andes; a Reassessment. Economic Geology, 85(5):1 044-1 058.
Lehmann B. 1987. Tin granites, geochemical heritage, magmatic differentiation. Geologische Rundschau, 76(1):177-185.
Lehmann B. 2011. Regional metal zonation in the Central Andes:tin versus copper. p.17-19.
Li C Y, Wang F Y, Hao X L, Ding X, Zhang H, Ling M X, Zhou J B, Li Y L, Fan W M, Sun W D. 2012a. Formation of the world's largest molybdenum metallogenic belt:a platetectonic perspective on the Qinling molybdenum deposits.International Geology Review, 54(9):1 093-1 112.
Li C Y, Zhang H, Wang F Y, Liu J Q, Sun Y L, Hao X L, Li Y L, Sun W D. 2012b. The formation of the Dabaoshan porphyry molybdenum deposit induced by slab rollback.Lithos, 150:101-110.
Li C Y, Zhang R Q, Ding X, Ling M X, Fan W M, Sun W D. 2016. Dating cassiterite using laser ablation ICP-MS. Ore Geology Reviews, 72:313-322.
Li S G, Yang W, Ke S, Meng X N, Tian H C, Xu L J, He Y S, Huang J, Wang X C, Xia Q K, Sun W D, Yang X Y, Ren Z Y, Wei H Q, Liu Y S, Meng F C, Yan J. 2017. Deep carbon cycles constrained by a large-scale mantle Mg isotope anomaly in eastern China. National Science Reviews, 4(1):111-120.
Li X M, Zou H P. 2017. Late Cretaceous-Cenozoic exhumation of the southeastern margin of Coastal Mountains, SE China, revealed by fission-track thermochronology:implications for the topographic evolution. Solid Earth Sciences, 2(3):79-88.
Liang H Y, Sun W D, Su W C, Zartman R E. 2009b. Porphyry copper-gold mineralization at Yulong, China, promoted by decreasing redox potential during magnetite alteration.Economic Geology, 104(4):587-596.
Liang J L, Ding X, Sun X M, Zhang Z M, Zhang H, Sun W D. 2009a. Nb/Ta fractionation observed in eclogites from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project. Chemical Geology, 268(1-2):27-40.
Liao M Y, Tao Y, Song X Y, Li Y B, Xiong F. 2016. Study of oxygen fugacity during magma evolution and ore genesis in the Hongge mafic-ultramafic intrusion, the Panxi region, SW China. Acta Geochimica, 35(1):25-42.
Lightfoot P C, Evans-Lamswood D. 2015. Structural controls on the primary distribution of mafic-ultramafic intrusions containing Ni-Cu-Co-(PGE) sulfide mineralization in the roots of large igneous provinces. Ore Geology Reviews, 64:354-386.
Ling M X, Liu Y L, Williams I S, Teng F Z, Yang X Y, Ding X, Wei G J, Xie L H, Deng W F, Sun W D. 2013. Formation of the world's largest REE deposit through protracted fluxing of carbonatite by subduction-derived fluids.Scientific Reports, 3:1776.
Ling M X, Wang F Y, Ding X, Hu Y H, Zhou J B, Zartman R E, Yang X Y, Sun W D. 2009. Cretaceous Ridge Subduction Along the Lower Yangtse River Belt, Eastern China. Economic Geology, 104(2):303-321.
Ludington S, Plumlee G S. 2009. Climax-Type Porphyry Molybdenum Deposits. US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2009-1215, U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia. 16p.
Lyons T W, Reinhard C T, Planavsky N J. 2014. The rise of oxygen in Earth's early ocean and atmosphere. Nature, 506(7488):307-315.
Mao J W, Chen Y B, Chen M H, Pirajno F. 2013. Major types and time-space distribution of Mesozoic ore deposits in South China and their geodynamic settings. Mineralium Deposita, 48(3):267-294.
Mao J W, Pirajno F, Cook N. 2011a. Mesozoic metallogeny in East China and corresponding geodynamic settings-An introduction to the special issue. Ore Geology Reviews, 43(1):1-7.
Mao J W, Pirajno F, Xiang J F, Gao J J, Ye H S, Li Y F, Guo B J. 2011b. Mesozoic molybdenum deposits in the East Qinling-Dabie orogenic belt:characteristics and tectonic settings. Ore Geology Reviews, 43(1):264-293.
McDonough W F, Sun S S. 1995. The composition of the earth.Chemical Geology, 120(3-4):223-253.
Mlynarczyk M S J, Williams-Jones A E. 2005. The role of collisional tectonics in the metallogeny of the Central Andean tin belt. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 240(3-4):656-667.
Mungall J E. 2002. Roasting the mantle:slab melting and the genesis of major Au and Au-rich Cu deposits. Geology, 30(10):915-918.
Munk L A, Hynek S A, Bradley D C, Boutt D F, Labay K, Jochens H. 2016. Lithium brines:a global perspective. In:Verplanck P L, Hitzman M W eds. Rare Earth and Critical Elements in Ore Deposits. Society of Economic Geologists, Littleton. p.339-365.
Oyarzun R, Márquez A, Lillo J, López I, Rivera S. 2001. Giant versus small porphyry copper deposits of Cenozoic age in northern Chile:adakitic versus normal calc-alkaline magmatism. Mineralium Deposita, 36(8):794-798.
Peucker-Ehrenbrink B, Jahn B M. 2001. Rhenium-osmium isotope systematics and platinum group element concentrations:loess and the upper continental crust.Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 2(10):2001GC000172.
Pollard P J, Taylor R G. 2002. Paragenesis of the Grasberg CuAu deposit, Irian Jaya, Indonesia:results from logging section 13. Mineralium Deposita, 37(1):117-136.
Richards J P. 2011. Magmatic to hydrothermal metal fluxes in convergent and collided margins. Ore Geology Reviews, 40(1):1-26.
Rudnick R L, Gao S. 2003. Composition of the continental crust. In:Heinrich D H, Turekian K K eds. Treatise on Geochemistry. Pergamon, Oxford. p.1-64.
Sahoo S K, Planavsky N J, Kendall B, Wang X Q, Shi X Y, Scott C, Anbar A D, Lyons T W, Jiang G Q. 2012. Ocean oxygenation in the wake of the Marinoan glaciation.Nature, 489(7417):546-549.
Schmidt M W, Poli S. 2014. Devolatilization during subduction.In:Holland H D, Turekian K K eds. Treatise on Geochemistry. Elsevier, Amsterdam. p.669-701.
Schmidt M W. 1996. Experimental constraints on recycling of potassium from subducted oceanic crust. Science, 272(5270):1 927-1 930.
Schulz K J, DeYoung Jr J H, Seal II R R, Bradley D C. 2017.Critical Mineral Resources of the United States-Economic and Environmental Geology and Prospects for Future Supply. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1802.U.S. Geological Survey, Reston.
Scott C, Lyons T W, Bekker A, Shen Y, Poulton S W, Chu X, Anbar A D. 2008. Tracing the stepwise oxygenation of the Proterozoic ocean. Nature, 452(7186):456-459.
Shannon R D, Prewitt C T. 1970. Revised values of effective ionic radii. Acta Crystallographica, 26(7):1 046-1 048.
Shirey S B, Cartigny P, Frost D J, Keshav S, Nestola F, Nimis P, Pearson D G, Sobolev N V, Walter M J. 2013. Diamonds and the geology of mantle carbon. Reviews in Mineralogy & Geochemistry, 75(1):355-421.
Sillitoe R H. 1997. Characteristics and controls of the largest porphyry copper-gold and epithermal gold deposits in the circum-Pacific region. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 44(3):373-388.
Sillitoe R H. 2010. Porphyry copper systems. Economic Geology, 105(1):3-41.
Singer D A, Berger V I, Moring B C. 2008. Porphyry Copper Deposits of the World:Database and grAde and Tonnage Models, 2008 (version 1.0). U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.45p, Accessed on 2013-04-27.
Song X Y, Zhong H, Tao Y, Zhou M F. 2005. Magmatic sulfide deposits in the Permian Emeishan Large Igneous Province, SW China. In:Mao J W, Bierlein F P, eds. Mineral Deposit Research:Meeting the Global Challenge. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. p.465-467.
Stein H J, Markey R J, Morgan J W, Du A, Sun Y. 1997. Highly precise and accurate Re-Os ages for molybdenite from the East Qinling molybdenum belt, Shaanxi Province, China.Economic Geology, 92(7-8):827-835.
Sun S S, McDonough W F. 1989. Chemical and isotopic systematics of oceanic basalts:implications for mantle composition and processes. In:Saunders A D, Norry M J eds. Magmatism in the Ocean Basins. Geological Society of London, London, United Kingdom. p.313-345.
Sun W D, Arculus R J, Bennett V C, Eggins S M, Binns R A. 2003b. Evidence for rhenium enrichment in the mantle wedge from submarine arc-like volcanic glasses (Papua New Guinea). Geology, 31(10):845-848.
Sun W D, Arculus R J, Kamenetsky V S, Binns R A. 2004.Release of gold-bearing fluids in convergent margin magmas prompted by magnetite crystallization. Nature, 431(7011):975-978.
Sun W D, Bennett V C, Eggins S M, Arculus R J, Perfit M R. 2003c. Rhenium systematics in submarine MORB and back-arc basin glasses:laser ablation ICP-MS results.Chemical Geology, 196(1-4):259-281.
Sun W D, Bennett V C, Eggins S M, Kamenetsky V S, Arculus R J. 2003a. Enhanced mantle-to-crust rhenium transfer in undegassed arc magmas. Nature, 422(6929):294-297.
Sun W D, Ding X, Ling M X, Zartman R E, Yang X Y. 2015a.Subduction and ore deposits. International Geology Review,57(9-10):iii-vi,
Sun W D, Hawkesworth C J, Yao C, Zhang C C, Huang R F, Liu X, Sun X L, Ireland T, Song M S, Ling M X, Ding X, Zhang Z F, Fan W M, Wu Z Q. 2018a. Carbonated mantle domains at the base of the Earth's upper mantle. Chemica Geology, 478:69-75.
Sun W D, Huang R F, Li H, Hu Y B, Zhang C C, Sun S J, Zhang L P, Ding X, Li C Y, Zartman R E, Ling M X. 2015b. Porphyry deposits and oxidized magmas. Ore Geology Reviews, 65:97-131.
Sun W D, Li C Y, Hao X L, Ling M X, Ireland T, Ding X, Fan W M. 2016. Oceanic anoxic events, subduction style and molybdenum mineralization. Solid Earth Sciences, 1(2):64-73.
Sun W D, Liang H Y, Ling M X, Zhan M Z, Ding X, Zhang H, Yang X Y, Li Y L, Ireland T R, Wei Q R, Fan W M. 2013. The link between reduced porphyry copper deposits and oxidized magmas. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 103:263-275.
Sun W D, Lin Q T, Zhang L P, Liao R Q, Li C Y. 2018b. The formation of the South China Sea resulted from the closure of the Neo-Tethys:a perspective from regional geology. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 34(12):3 467-3 478. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Sun W D, Ling M X, Chung S L, Ding X, Yang X Y, Liang H Y, Fan W M, Goldfarb R, Yin Q Z. 2012. Geochemical constraints on adakites of different origins and copper mineralization. Journal of Geology, 120(1):105-120.
Sun W D, Ling M X, Yang X Y, Fan W M, Ding X, Liang H Y. 2010. Ridge subduction and porphyry copper-gold mineralization:an overview. Science China-Earth Sciences, 53(4):475-484.
Sun W D, Teng F Z, Niu Y L, Tatsumi Y, Yang X Y, Ling M X. 2014. The subduction factory:geochemical perspectives.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 143:1-7.
Sun W D, Wang J T, Zhang L P, Zhang C C, Li H, Ling M X, Ding X, Li C Y, Liang H Y. 2017. The formation of porphyry copper deposits. Acta Geochimica, 36(1):9-15.
Sun W D, Zhang H, Ling M X, Ding X, Chung S L, Zhou J B, Yang X Y, Fan W M. 2011a. The genetic association of adakites and Cu-Au ore deposits. International Geology Review, 53(5-6):691-703.
Sun W D. 2003. The Subduction Factory, A Perspective from Rhenium and Trace Element Geochemistry of Oceanic Basalts and Eclogites. The Austrilian National University, Canberra. p.1-265.
Sun X L, Sun W D, Hu Y B, Ding W, Ireland T, Zhan M Z, Liu J Q, Ling M X, Ding X, Zhang Z F, Fan W M. 2018c. Major Miocene geological events in southern Tibet and eastern Asia induced by the subduction of the Ninetyeast Ridge. Acta Geochimica, 37(3):395-401.
Sun X M, Xu L, Sun W D, Zhai W, Liang Y H, Tang Q, Liang J L, Zhang Z M, Shen K, Wang F Y, Ling M X, Zartman R E. 2011b. Channelized fluids in subducted continental crust:constraints from δD-δ18O of quartz and fluid inclusions in quartz veins from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project. International Geology Review, 53(13):1 443-1 463.
Thieblemont D, Stein G, Lescuyer J L. 1997. Epithermal and porphyry deposits:the adakite connection. Comptes Rendus de l Academie des Sciences Serie II Fascicule ASciences de la Terre et des Planetes, 325(2):103-109.
Thompson J F H, Sillitoe R H, Baker T, Lang J R, Mortensen J K. 1999. Intrusion related gold deposits associated with tungsten-tin provinces. Mineralium Deposita, 34(4):323-334.
van Keken P E, Hacker B R, Syracuse E M, Abers G A. 2011. Subduction factory:4. Depth-dependent flux of H2O from subducting slabs worldwide. Journal of Geophysica Research:Solid Earth, 116(B1):B01401,
van Keken P E, Syracuse E M, Hacker B H, Abers G A, Fischer K M, Kneller E A, Spiegelman M. 2009. Modeling the subduction factory:the ins and outs from a thermal and dynamical perspective. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 73:A1372.
Wang C Y, Wei B, Zhou M F, Minh D H, Qi L. 2018. A synthesis of magmatic Ni-Cu-(PGE) sulfide deposits in the ~260 Ma Emeishan large igneous province, SW China and northern Vietnam. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 154:162-186.
Wang F Y, Ling M X, Ding X, Hu Y H, Zhou J B, Yang X Y, Liang H Y, Fan W M, Sun W D. 2011. Mesozoic large magmatic events and mineralization in SE China:oblique subduction of the Pacific plate. International Geology Review, 53(5-6):704-726.
Wang S L, Li H, Shang L B, Bi X W, Wang X S, Fan W L. 2016. Copper partitioning between granitic silicate melt and coexisting aqueous fluid at 850℃ and 100 MPa. Acta Geochimica, 35(4):381-390.
Wang X D, Ni P, Jiang S Y, Zhao K D, Wang T G. 2010. Origin of ore-forming fluid in the Piaotang tungsten deposit in Jiangxi Province:evidence from helium and argon isotopes. Chinese Science Bulletin, 55(7):628-634.
Wilkinson J J. 2013. Triggers for the formation of porphyry ore deposits in magmatic arcs. Nature Geoscience, 6(11):917-925.
Xia B, Chen G W, Wang H. 2003. Analysis of tectonic settings of global superlarge porphyry copper deposits. Science in China Series D:Earth Sciences, 46(S1):110-122.
Xiong X L, Rao B, Chen F R, Zhu J C, Zhao Z H. 2002a.Crystallization and melting experiments of a fluorine-rich leucogranite from the Xianghualing Pluton, South China, at 150 MPa and H2O-saturated conditions. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 21(2):175-188.
Xiong X L, Rao B, Zhu J C, Zhao Z H, Wang X J. 2002b. Fractional crystallization of a protolithionite granitic magma and the formation mechanism of albite granitic melt. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 18(2):223-230. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Xu Y G, Wang Y, Wei X, He B. 2013. Mantle plume-related mineralization and their principal controlling factors. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 29(10):3 307-3 322. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Xu Z Q, Wang R C, Zhao Z B, Fu X F. 2018. On the structural backgrounds of the large-scale "hard-rock type" lithium ore belts in China. Acta Geologica Sinica, 92(6):1 091-1 106. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Yang K H, Scott S D. 1996. Possible contribution of a metalrich magmatic fluid to a sea-floor hydrothermal system. Nature, 383(6599):420-423.
Yang S, Zhong H, Zhu W G, Hu W J, Bai Z J. 2017. Platinumgroup element geochemistry of mafic rocks from the Dongchuan area, southwestern China. Acta Geochimica, 36(1):52-65.
Yao J M, Mathur R, Sun W D, Song W L, Chen H Y, Mutti L, Xiang X K, Luo X H. 2016. Fractionation of Cu and Mo isotopes caused by vapor-liquid partitioning, evidence from the Dahutang W-Cu-Mo ore field. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 17(5):1 725-1 739.
Zaw K, Peters S G, Cromie P, Burrett C, Hou Z Q. 2007. Nature, diversity of deposit types and metallogenic relations of South China. Ore Geology Reviews, 31(1-4):3-47. Zhang C C, Sun W D, Wang J T, Zhang L P, Sun S J, Wu K. 2017c. Oxygen fugacity and porphyry mineralization:a zircon perspective of Dexing porphyry Cu deposit, China.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 206:343-363.
Zhang L P, Hu Y B, Liang J L, Ireland T, Chen Y L, Zhang R Q, Sun S J, Sun W D. 2017a. Adakitic rocks associated with the Shilu copper-molybdenum deposit in the Yangchun Basin, South China, and their tectonic implications. Acta Geochimica, 36(2):132-150.
Zhang L P, Zhang R Q, Hu Y B, Liang J L, Ouyang Z X, He J J, Chen Y X, Guo J, Sun W D. 2017b. The formation of the Late Cretaceous Xishan Sn-W deposit, South China:geochronological and geochemical perspectives. Lithos, 290-291:253-268.
Zhang L P, Zhang R Q, Wu K, Chen Y X, Li C Y, Hu Y B, He J J, Liang J L, Sun W D. 2018. Late Cretaceous granitic magmatism and mineralization in the Yingwuling W-Sn deposit, South China:constraints from zircon and cassiterite U-Pb geochronology and whole-rock geochemistry. Ore Geology Reviews, 96:115-129.
Zhang R Q, Lu J J, Lehmann B, Li C Y, Li G L, Zhang L P, Guo J, Sun W D. 2017d. Combined zircon and cassiterite U-Pb dating of the Piaotang granite-related tungsten-tin deposit, southern Jiangxi tungsten district, China. Ore Geology Reviews, 82:268-284.
Zhang Z M, Shen K, Sun W D, Liu Y S, Liou J G, Shi C, Wang J L. 2008. Fluids in deeply subducted continental crust:petrology, mineral chemistry and fluid inclusion of UHP metamorphic veins from the Sulu orogen, eastern China. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 72(13):3 200-3 228.
Zhao H J, Lu M J, Zhou S G, Ye J H, Chen X F, Zhang C, Guo W M, Huang F X, Yao C Y. 2017. A study of kwy metallogenetic zones and principal metallogeic regularities of iron ore resources in South America countries. Geology of China, 44(4):690-706. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Zheng Y C, Liu S A, Wu C D, Griffin W L, Li Z Q, Xu B, Yang Z M, Hou Z Q, Reilly S Y O. 2018. Cu isotopes reveal initial Cu enrichment in sources of giant porphyry deposits in a collisional setting. Geology, 47(2):135-138.
Zheng Y F, Mao J W, Chen Y J, Sun W D, Ni P, Yang X Y. 2019. Hydrothermal ore deposits in collisional orogens. Science Bulletin, 64(3):205-212.
Zhou M F, Chen W T, Wang C Y, Prevec S A, Liu P P, Howarth G H. 2013. Two stages of immiscible liquid separation in the formation of Panzhihua-type Fe-Ti-V oxide deposits, SW China. Geoscience Frontiers, 4(5):481-502.