||Cite this paper:
||BI Haibo, LIANG Yu, WANG Yunhe, LIANG Xi, ZHANG Zehua, DU Tingqin, YU Qinglong, HUANG Jue, KONG Mei, HUANG Haijun. Arctic multiyear sea ice variability observed from satellites: a review[J]. Journal of Oceanology and Limnology, 2020, 38(4): 962-984
Arctic multiyear sea ice variability observed from satellites: a review
|BI Haibo1,2,3,4, LIANG Yu1,2,3,4, WANG Yunhe1,2,3,4, LIANG Xi5, ZHANG Zehua1,2,3,4, DU Tingqin5, YU Qinglong6, HUANG Jue7, KONG Mei8, HUANG Haijun1,2,3,4
|1 CAS Key Laboratory of Marine Geology and Environment, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;
2 Laboratory for Marine Geology, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266200, China;
3 Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;
4 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;
5 Shandong Academy of Environmental Science Co., Ltd., Jinan 250013, China;
6 National Marine Environmental Forecasting Center, Beijing 100081, China;
7 Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, China;
8 Shandong Provincial Eco-environment Monitoring Center, Jinan 250101, China
|In comparison with seasonal sea ice (first-year ice, FY ice), multiyear (MY) sea ice is thicker and has more opportunity to survive through the summer melting seasons. Therefore, the variability of wintertime MY ice plays a vital role in modulating the variations in the Arctic sea ice minimum extent during the following summer. As a response, the ice-ocean-atmosphere interactions may be significantly affected by the variations in the MY ice cover. Satellite observations are characterized by their capability to capture the spatiotemporal changes of Arctic sea ice. During the recent decades, many active and passive sensors onboard a variety of satellites (QuikSCAT, ASCAT, SSMIS, ICESat, CryoSat-2, etc.) have been used to monitor the dramatic loss of Arctic MY ice. The main objective of this study is to outline the advances and remaining challenges in monitoring the MY ice changes through the utilization of multiple satellite observations. We summarize the primary satellite data sources that are used to identify MY ice. The methodology to classify MY ice and derive MY ice concentration is reviewed. The interannual variability and trends in the MY ice time series in terms of coverage, thickness, volume, and age composition are evaluated. The potential causes associated with the observed Arctic MY ice loss are outlined, which are primarily related to the export and melting mechanisms. In addition, the causes to the MY ice depletion from the perspective of the oceanic water inflow from Pacific and Atlantic Oceans and the water vapor intrusion, as well as the roles of synoptic weather, are analyzed. The remaining challenges and possible upcoming research subjects in detecting the rapidly changing Arctic MY ice using the combined application of multisource remote sensing techniques are discussed. Moreover, some suggestions for the future application of satellite observations on the investigations of MY ice cover changes are proposed.
multiyear sea ice|Arctic Ocean|satellite observation
|Received: 2020-02-20 Revised: 2020-03-25
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