2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;
3 Key Laboratory of Marine Sedimentology & Environmental Geology, First Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Qingdao 266061, China;
4 Faculty of Earth Science, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China;
5 University of Massachusetts Boston, 100 Morrissey Blvd., Boston, MA02125, USA
Since the Cenozoic，the rise of the Qinghai-TibetPlateau has formed the high relief of the Himalaya，and the tension fracturing of the marginal seas of thewestern Pacifi c Ocean. This dramatic l and formchange of the Asia-Pacifi c region contributed to the origin of a number of large Asian rivers，such as theHuanghe(Yellow)，Changjiang(Yangtze)，Red，Mekong，Indus，and Ganges-Brahmaputra Rivers.Such a large number of “mega river” systems plays animportant role in transporting large sediment and suspended material loads to the ocean(Burbank，1992; Brookfeld，1998; Li et al.，2000; Yang et al.，2001; Wang，2004). The sediment budget of theseAsian rivers accounts for more than 70% of the totalglobal suspended sediment load(Milliman and Syvitski，1992). Most of these sediments becometrapped in estuaries and adjacent continental shelves.The evolution of these depositional environments and the sediment dispersal processes have thereforegained substantial attention from earth scientists.
In recent decades，numerous geological and geophysical studies have revealed the fate ofsediments derived from the Changjiang River. Thisincludes studies on the Holocene environmentalchanges of the Changjiang estuary，delta，and theinner shelf of the East China Sea(ECS)(Chen and Stanley，1993; Chen et al.，2000; Li et al.，2000，2002; Hori et al.，2001a，b，2002a，b; Tao et al.，2006;Yi et al.，2006; Liu et al.，2007，2010; Wang et al.，2010; Xu et al.，2012). The fate of the Changjiang River material and the formation of the ECS mud beltare dominated by the circulation and strength ofcurrents over the ECS inner shelf(Fig. 1). TheKuroshio Warm Current(KWC) and the TaiwanWarm current(TWC)fl ow northward. In winter，the Changjiang alongshore current，including the Changjiang River Diluted Water(CDW) and theZhejiang Fujian Coastal Current(ZFCC)，fl owssouthward. A large amount of the sediment loaddeposited around the subaqueous delta and the northHangzhou Bay is subsequently eroded periodically and transported southward by the Changjiangalongshore current to form “the mud belt deposit onthe inner shelf of the ECS”(Qin et al.，1987; Liu et al.，2007; Wang et al.，2013). The dispersion ofsuspended sediment to the ECS is constrained westof 123°E by the TWC(Yun，2010).
Wang et al.(2008a)have proposed the formationof the alongshore current and the arrival of Changjiangsediment material to the ECS inner shelf since 10 kaBP based on grain-size analyses of core MD06-3040(27.70°N，121.78°E，with a water depth of 47 m).However，Xu et al.(2009)concluded that theformation of the Changjiang alongshore current and the transport southward of Changjiang-derivedmaterials occurred at 12.3 ka BP based on the sedimentgrain-size data of core EC2005(27.42°N，121.33°E，with a water depth of 36 m). Evidence from thebottom age of a high-st and system tract(HST)in theECS and the foraminifera record appear to support the infl uence of KWC，TWC，and ZFCC on the ECSinner shelf from approximately 8–7 ka BP(Jian et al.，2000; Liu et al.，2007; Zhao et al.，2009). The ZFCCstrengthened between 5.1–2.8 cal ka BP，concurrentwith the low sedimentation rate in the subaqueousdelta during 6–4 cal ka BP(Wang et al.，2010).Therefore，it is uncertain when and why the Changjiang alongshore current crossed the HangzhouBay to form the mud wedge on the inner shelf of theECS.
The continental shelf area off Hangzhou Bay is animportant passage，and trap，for sediments from the Changjiang River. The sedimentary environmentevolution of this area can provide insight into thehistory of Changjiang-derived sediment dispersal and deposition. Here，we focus on the Hangzhou Baycontinental shelf deposits to investigate thesedimentary environment changes，and reveal thedispersal and distribution pattern of sedimentarymaterial carried by the Changjiang River. In addition，this work provides the opportunity to compare thedepositional systems of the offshore area with thoseof the paleo-incised valley and subaqueous delta.2 MATERIAL AND METHOD
In November 2008，a 30.6-m-long borehole coreCJK10 was drilled offshore of Hangzhou Bay(30.61°N，122.60°E，Fig. 1)using the rigging methodin water 25.3-m-deep，with a recovery of 91.1%. Thecore was split，described，and sub-sampled in thelaboratory. The samples for AMS 14C dating(benthic foraminifera and plant fragments)were pickedmanually(Table 1). Plant samples were picked out and identifi ed with the naked eye. Benthic foraminiferawere separated from sieved material under amicroscope. The 14C ages of 12 samples weremeasured at the National Ocean Sciences AcceleratorMass Spectrometry(NOSAMS)Facility，of theWoods Hole Oceanographic Institution，Woods Hole，MA，USA. The ratios of 14C/ 12C were measured forage determination and the δ13C corrections for isotopefractionation were made. All radiocarbon ages werecalibrated(cal a BP)using the Calib Rev 6.1(beta)program(Stuiver and Reimer，1993). The Marine09calibration dataset was used for the foraminiferasamples. The marine reservoir effect(ΔR)wasregarded as -100±36，based on Southon et al.(2002) and Kong and Lee(2005). Final calibrated ages at the1σ confi dence level with probabilities >0.8 areregarded in this study as reliable.
A total of 255 samples for grain-size analyses werepretreated with a 30% H2 O2 solution to removeorganic matter，and with 3 mol/L HCl solution toremove carbonate. Grain-size analysis was measuredwith a Mastersizer 2000 laser particle size analyzer.The measurement range of the instrument is 0.02–2 000 μm，with a resolution of 0.01 Φ. The repeatedmeasurement error is <3%.Micropaleontological analysis of 18 samples wasconducted at intervals of 70–150 cm or the uppermost20.4 m of the core using the st and ard treatmentmethod(Wang et al.，1985)at the Key Laboratory of Marine Geology，Tongji University，Shanghai，China.
Heavy mineral analysis was performed on the veryfi ne s and fraction(0.063–0.125 mm)for 52 sedimentsamples at intervals of 20–100 cm. Dry samples of~200 g were wet-sieved using a 62.5-μm nylon mesh.Approximately 2 g of dry sample of the very fi ne s and fraction was separated using bromoform with aspecifi c density of 2.889–2.891 at 20±1°C. For heavymineral examinations，line counts of more than 300grains were identifi ed under a stereoscope(OlympusSZX16，Olympus Corporation，Tokyo，Japan) and apolarizing microscope(Olympus BX51). Detritus and weathered minerals were treated as a separate mineralcategory.
The relative content of S and Cl was tested usingan Itrax™ core scanner. This high-resolution X-rayfl uorescence(XRF)tool can determine the amount of，and fl uctuations within，the chemical species along asplit core(Jansen et al.，1998; Haschke et al.，2002;Croudace et al.，2006; Richter et al.，2006). XRFscans were made every 1 cm.
With the exception of AMS 14C dating and micropaleontological analysis，all pretreatment work and tests were done at the Key Laboratory of MarineSedimentology and Environmental Geology，StateOceanic Administration，Qingdao，China.3 RESULT 3.1 Lithology，14C ages and distribution of S and Cl
Based on the lithology，S and Cl content，benthicforaminifera distribution，and 14C ages，we dividedthe borehole sediments into four units(Fig. 3).
Unit 1(30.6–21.7 m)
Sediments are predominantly yellow and brownishyellow fi ne s and ，with parallel bedding(Fig. 4，22.9–30.6 m). The sediment consists of 61.5%–96.6%s and ，3.4%–33.5% silt，and 0–1.6% clay. The meangrain size(Φ)is in the range of 2.4–4.1. The S and Clcontent was ~0 counts per second(cps).
Unit 2(21.7–17.2 m)
This unit has brownish yellow and bluish gray todark gray hard mud(Fig. 4，21.5–17.25 m)，and verythin plant fragments are common. Silt is dominant(75.1%–86.1%)，followed by clay(12.5%–22.0%) and s and (0.8%–12.1%). The mean Φ is in the rangeof 5.9–6.8. No foraminifera were found. A 14C age of22 999–23 555 cal a BP was obtained at 20.9 m depth(Table 1).
Unit 3(17.2–5.2 m，including Units 3a and 3b)
This unit is characterized by gray mud with many dry，greenish gray concretions，plant fragments，and complete gastropods，especially from 8.1 m to 5.2 m(Fig. 4，7.8–5.82 m). Many intercalations of silt laminae(Fig. 4，16.4–16.1 m，0.2–0.5-cm-thick) and organiclaminae are present in the lower part of this section(17.2–16.15 m). Sediment between 8.1–5.2 m are veryviscous and stiff，resulting in some damage to the coreduring splitting. Silt(65.2%–83.2%)is dominant inthis unit，followed by clay(7.7%–33.3%) and s and (0–19.1%). The mean value of Φ varies from 5.2 to 7.6.The S content increases abruptly from a mean value of~200 cps to 400–600 cps at a depth of 17.2 m，and thenreaches its maximum(nearly 1 000 cps)with largefl uctuations throughout the unit. The Cl content(300–2 500 cps)increases gradually towards the uppermostpart of the unit. Foraminifera are more widelydistributed in this section compared with the underlyingtwo units，with abundances in the range of 3–34/g.Radiocarbon ages were determined at 16.25 m(10 703–11 068 cal a BP)，15.4 m(10 516–10 653 cal a BP)，8.4 m(10 650–10 755 cal a BP)，6.8 m(10 587–10 699 cal a BP)，5.95 m(11 204–11 269 cal a BP)，and 5.55 m(10 166–10 231 cal a BP)(Table 1).
Unit 4(5.2–0 m)
An erosive surface occurs at 5.2 m. A 3-cm-thickdark gray mud layer with high organic content overliesthis discontinuous contact. Sediments overlying theorganic-rich layer comprise gray and yellowish graymud，with some silty laminations or clumps of siltymaterial. The sediments consist of silt(52.2%–81.0%)，clay(10.5%–30.5%) and s and (0.1%–37.4%).The mean value of Φ is in the range of 5.3–7.3. The Scontent in this section of the core fl uctuates less thanthat in unit 3，and is in the range of 200–400 cps. TheCl content is higher than in the rest of the core，increasing from 2 000 cps to 4 000 cps. Foraminiferaare ubiquitous through the section with abundances of4–21/g. Radiocarbon ages were determined at 5.2 m(10 185–10 236 cal a BP，obtained from completegastropod shell)，5.2 m(10 406–10 536 cal a BP，obtained from organic-rich mud)，5.15 m(4 297–4 424 cal a BP)，3.35 m(3 056–3 196 cal a BP)，and 3.0 m(3 294–3 394 cal a BP)(Table 1). 3.2 Foraminifera assemblages(FA)
A total of 57 species of benthic foraminifera wereidentifi ed from 2 658 tests，with predominantlyeuryhaline and littoral species. Descriptions of theforaminifera assemblage(FA)in each unit are asfollows(Fig. 5):
(FA1)Unit 2: no foraminifera were observed.
(FA2)Unit 3: foraminifera occur in the fi ve samplesobtained from 17.2–11.0 m，but commonly with lowabundances(3–7/g) and diversity，with the exceptionof the bottom part in which the abundance is relativelyhigh(34/g at 17.1 m，Fig. 5). This assemblage isdominated by Ammonia beccarii，Elphidiellakiangsuensis ，and Helenina and erseni .
(FA3)11.0–5.2 m，the foraminiferal abundanceincreased to 11–53/g(Figs.3，5). The assemblages aredominated by Ammonia beccarii(37.6%–65.1%)，Elphidiella kiangsuensis(3.4%–15.3%)，and Trochammina inflata(0.8%–14.5%). Cribrononionporisuturalis，Pseudononionella variabilis，Pseudogyroidina sinensis ，and Pseudoeponides nakazatoensis are first observed in this unit，usuallywith a relatively high content. The number ofHaynesina germanica and Helenina and erseniapproaches zero at a depth of ~11.0 m and ~8.1 m，respectively. Elphidium advenum，Quinqueloculinalamarckiana，Sigmoilopsis asperula，Hanzawaianipponica，Florilus atlantica，and Pararotalianipponica appear sporadically between 8.1–5 m.
(FA4)Unit 4: the foraminifera have an abundanceof 4–21/g. Quinqueloculina(lamarckiana+seminula)(11.2%–24.8%)，Ammonia maruhasii(9.9%–21.9%)，Elphidium advenum(1.5%–22.6%)，Arenoparellaasiatica(5.7%–13.8%)，and Sigmoilopsis asperula(3.1%–12.8%)predominate in this interval. Ammonia annectens+Ammonia compressiuscula(1.5%–7.8%)，Hanzawaia nipponica(1.5%–8.5%)，and Florilusspp.(3.1%–6.2%)were observed at lowconcentrations. Pararotalia nipponica，Elphidiummagellanicum，Spiroloculina communis，Laagenaspp.，Bolivina cockei，Guttulina spp.，and Brizalinastriatula appear sporadically.3.3 Heavy mineral assemblages
Thirty-one types of heavy mineral were identifi ed in core CJK10. The stratigraphic distribution of somerepresentative types is shown in Fig. 6. The heavymineral assemblage limits match the lithologicalunits，except for unit 3 in which two assemblageshave been identified.
Unit 1 contains an average of 43.9% hornblende，29.8% epidote，6.3% mica，5.0% pyroxene，and 3.5%hypersthene. Ilmenite，magnetite，limonite，hematite，pyrite，and siderite are rare.
Siderite dominates unit 2，with a content of 84.3%–99.7%.
In unit 3a，pyrite(28.0%)occurs between 17.2 m and 11.0 m，whereas no siderite was observed. Pyrite，hornblende(24.8%，usually with granular and stubbycolumnarmorphologies，green，and light green)，limonite(17.3%)，epidote(11.4%，usually stronglyweathered)，ilmenite(5.2%，usually as smallgranules)，and pyroxene(5.1%，usually granular)arethe dominant heavy mineral species in this section.Limonite(45.6%)，pyrite(27.3%)，and hematite(9.1%)predominate between ~11.0–9.0 m，whilehornblende，epidote，and mica are rare. Massive and yellowish red pyrite is very abundant in unit 3，especially in unit 3b(~9.0–5.2 m)，approaching95.2%. Conversely，pyrite is rare or was not observedin the rest of the units.
The heavy mineral assemblage of unit 4 is similarto that of unit 1，but with a higher content of ilmenite(usually forming small granules showing surfacecorrosion)，magnetite(usually granular and oxidized)，and pyrite(mainly small and granular)，and a lowermica content(Fig. 6).4 DISCUSSION 4.1 Age determination and sedimentation rate
The age of unit 1 could not be confi rmed becauseof a lack of AMS 14C data. Unit 2 was deposited duringapproximately 23.2–11.0 cal ka BP. The agesdetermined for unit 3 are tightly grouped，making itdiffi cult to discern specifi c ages for small-scalesediment packages within this section. The marinesediments of unit 4 formed mainly since 4.3 cal ka BP when sea level was close to the present level. The3-cm-thick organic-rich mud at the top of unit 3 isdirectly overlain by these marine sediments. This thinlayer most likely consists of reworked material duringthe transgression. Considering the lithology of unit 3，mainly gray mud with many concretions，plantfragments，and complete gastropods，we regard thegastropods as an in situ index of the sedimentaryenvironment. As a result，the 10.2 cal ka BP obtainedfrom the gastropod shells at 5.2 m is likely to be moreaccurate than the age of 10.6 cal ka BP determinedfrom the organic mud. We therefore infer thatsediments at a depth of 16.15–5.2 m were mainlydeposited during the period of 10.9–10.2 cal ka BP.Tightly grouped ages may refl ect a high sedimentationrate of nearly 1.6 cm/ a(Fig. 7). The climate was warm and wet during 11.4–9.2 cal ka BP(Dykoski et al.，2005; Shao et al.，2006). Therefore，the rate ofsediment supply during this period can be regarded asconstant. Based on the 1.6 cm/ a sedimentation rate，we determined an age of ~11.0 cal ka BP and 10.6 calka BP at core depths of 17.2 m and 11.0 m，respectively.The ages at 3.0 m and 3.35 m(Table 1)appearstratigraphically reversed，most likely because thesediments were reworked. The presence of siltylaminations in the predominantly muddy material at5.5–3.3 m(Figs.3，4)implies that there was a relativeincrease in pulses of hydrodynamic energy，whichmay have caused reworking of surface sediments.Considering the similarity of the two ages(3 180±20 and 3 360±15 cal a BP)，we adopted an average age of~3.2 cal ka BP for the sediments at ~3.2 m depth tocalculate the sedimentation rate.
The age of 10.4 cal ka BP at -5.2 m may be erroneously old. Theages of 10.9 cal ka BP and 10.2 cal ka BP at depths -16.25 m and -5.2 m，respectively，were used to calculate the sedimentation rateduring this period. The ages at -3.35 m and -3.0 m are consideredto be reworked and therefore an average of ~3.2 cal ka BP wasadopted for this depth.
The sediment accumulation curve is presented inFig. 7 and shows a particularly low sedimentation rate(~0.04 cm/ a)from 23.2–10.9 cal ka BP. No sedimentsdated at 10.2–4.3 cal ka BP are preserved in coreCJK10. Sedimentation was relatively slow during theperiods of 4.3–3.2 cal ka BP and 3.2–0 cal ka BP withrates of ~0.22 cm/ a and ~0.1 cm/ a，respectively.4.2 Interpretation of sedimentary facies
(1)Fluvial environment in unit 1
The color of sediments in unit 1(yellow and brownish yellow，Fig. 4)indicates an oxidizingterrestrial environment. Element S exists in forms S2-，[S2]2-，S0，S4+，and S6+ . In the oxidizing condition，element S in the low valence state(i.e.，S 2-，[S2] 2-)canconvert to S4+，and fi nally be oxidized to S6+ in theform of sulfate. Most sulfate with high solubility canbe transported by rivers to the ocean(Liu et al.，1984). In addition，the content of element Cl is also high inthe marine realm. Therefore，high S and Cl contentcan be observed in marine sediments. Low S and Clcontent was observed in unit 1(Fig. 3)，potentiallyindicating a terrestrial environment. The relativelycoarse sediments of s and with parallel beddingstructures in unit 1(Fig. 4)demonstrates a high energy，possibly fl uvial，environment.
(2)A fl uvial terrace environment in unit 2
The lithology of unit 2 is the same as that of thefi rst stiff mud on the Changjiang coast. Siderite，representative of this stiff mud of the ChangjiangRiver delta plain(Jin et al.，2007)，is extremelyabundant(~84.3%–99.7%)in unit 2(Fig. 6). As aresult，we can conclude that the sediments in unit 2were mainly stiff mud. The stiff mud，consisting of apaleosoil，experienced pedogenesis in the sea-levellow-st and Marine Isotope Stage 2(MIS 2)，and earlydiagenesis after paleointerfl uve inundation by the sealevelrise during MIS 1(Li et al.，2000; Qin et al.，2008). During MIS 2 global sea level wasapproximately 120–130 m below the present level(Yang and Xie，1984; Fairbanks，1989). The riversincised deeply，and the paleointerfl uves weresuperaqueously exposed and experiencedpedogenesis. With postglacial sea level rise，interfl uves began to be in fluenced by sea water，pedogenesis subsequently stopped，and earlydiagenesis began，producing the stiff aspect of thismud. The sediments in unit 2 were therefore related toan interfl uve depositional environment during 23.2–11 cal ka BP，which was not in fluenced by sea wateras indicated by no observations of foraminifera(Fig. 5). A fl uvial terrace environment is a potentialexplanation for unit 2 of core CJK10(Fig. 3).
(3)A supra tidal fl at to upper tidal fl at and saltmarsh environment in unit 3
The sediments in unit 3，including mainly graymud with greenish gray concretions，plant fragments，and complete gastropod shells，are sediments typicalof upper and supra tidal flats. The S content increasesabruptly from ~200 cps to ~400–600 cps at 17.2 m，and then to ~1 000 cps at a depth of ~16.7–16.6 m(Fig. 3). This sharp increase of S denotes a reducingenvironment. However，the Cl content remainsrelatively low(~400–600 cps)at 17.2–16.15 m(Fig. 3). This indicates that a reducing environmentwith little to no infl uence by seawater dominates atthis depth range. The abrupt emergence of foraminiferaat 17.1 m(Figs.3，5)may have been caused byseawater intrusion over terrestrial sediments during storm tides. The presence of coarser silt intercalationsin this section(Fig. 4)suggests that the sedimentaryenvironment was not stable，and may have formedduring fl ooding，seawater intrusion，and /or stormtides. Therefore，a supra tidal fl at environment isinferred during ~11.0–10.9 cal ka BP，with occasionalinfl uxes of seawater，for sediments between 17.2 m and 16.15 m.
Sediments at a depth range of 16.15–11.0 m in unit3a are characterized by oligohaline foraminiferaspecies with very low abundance(3–7/g) and diversity. Only Ammonia beccarii，Elphidiellakiangsuensis，Helenina and erseni，and Haynisinagermanica are preserved in this section. Theseforaminifera are typical of modern intertidal flats ofthe Yellow Sea and the ECS with a salinity <15(Hua and Wang，1986; Hong，1987; Wang et al.，1988). Wetherefore interpret an upper tidal fl at between 16.15–11.0 m，which is close to mean high water(MHW) and was periodically submerged by sea water.
Foraminifera abundance increases from 3–7/g inunit 3a to 11–53/g in unit 3b(Fig. 5). A greaterdiversity of species appears towards the upper part ofunit 3b. Conversely，Haynesina germanica and Helenina and erseni decrease upward and are nolonger observed at a depth of ~11.0 m and ~8.1 m，respectively. Trochammina inflata，a typical saltmarsh species，is ubiquitous in unit 3b. The verticaldistribution of foraminifera in core CJK10 clearlyshows an increase in salinity. This is in agreementwith the constant，upward increase in Cl(Fig. 3). Unit3b is therefore defi ned as a sedimentary environmentof a salt marsh，which is located between MHW and the mean spring high water(MSHW).
Our interpretation also appears to be supported bythe distribution of pyrite and limonite in unit 3. Pyriteis diagnostic of an anoxic(i.e.，reducing)environment and ，if oxidized，would decompose to Fe(OH)3 and Fe 2 O 3 ·H2 O，and ultimately limonite(Li and Chen，1995; Jin et al.，2007). Relatively high proportions ofboth limonite(17.3%) and pyrite(28.0%)occurbelow 11.0 m depth(Fig. 6)which may，therefore，beclose to the oxidation-reduction interface. Thelimonite(Fig. 6)can be attributed to the transformationof pyrite at such an interface. In the early salt marshperiod，the environment was also dominated byoxidation，as shown by the much higher content oflimonite(45.6%)at 11.0–9.0 m. Conversely，reducingconditions dominated in the later salt marsh period，asrevealed by the abundance of pyrite and the lack oflimonite at depths of 8.1–5.2 m.
(4)Shallow marine environment in unit 4
The wide distribution of foraminifera，such asQuinqueloculina(lamarckiana+seminula)，Ammoniamaruhasii，Elphidium advenum，Arenoparellaasiatica，and Sigmoilopsis asperula，between 5.2–0 mimply that a near-shore，shallow marine environmentexisted from ~4.3 cal ka BP. This is similar to thepresent environment，and is supported by the frequentoccurrence of modern，offshore species，e.g.，Ammonia annectens，A . compressiuscula，Hanzawaianipponica，and Florilus spp.4.3 ECS sea level fl uctuation with emphasis on10.9–10.2 cal ka BP
Records from tidal and supra tidal flats are goodindicators of relative sea level(RSL). Age pointsderived from unit 3 of core CJK10(Table 1)providea relatively accurate constraint on the ECS sea levelrise during 10.9–10.2 cal ka BP(Fig. 8). Because theupper tidal fl at is close to the MHW，half the tidalrange of 1.5 m(Shou et al.，2009)was subtractedfrom the elevation of the data points to reconstructECS RSL. Similarly，as the supra tidal fl at and saltmarsh were located between the MHW and MSHW，approximately 2.5 m was subtracted from thesediment elevation for RSL calibration. Core CJK10is located in the vicinity of the Zhoushan archipelago，in the middle of the Zhejiang-Fujian up lift. This studyarea has been up lifted since the Quaternary，whiletectonic subsidence has dominated the ECScontinental shelf plain. The amplitude of the neotectonicmovement in this study area has been minorsince the Holocene(Wang，1995). The tectonicsubsidence and up lift can therefore be neglected forthe RSL calculation. In addition，sedimentconsolidation reduction has not been consideredbecause only 5.2-m-thick sediments overlay theunderlying tidal fl at layer.
Based on the calculation，the ECS RSL wasapproximately -45 m below present sea level around11 cal ka BP，-44 m around 10.9 cal ka BP，-37.8 maround 10.6 cal ka BP，and -33 m around 10.2 cal kaBP. The ECS RSL continued rising at an average rateof 1.6 cm/ a(Fig. 8，dark gray)during 10.9–10.2 cal kaBP. However，the sea level rise in the ECS wasvariable，relatively higher during 10.9–10.6 cal ka BP(~2.1 cm/ a)，and lower since 10.6 cal ka BP(~1.2 cm/ a). The sedimentation rate is presumed to beconstant(1.6 cm/ a)during 11.4–9.2 cal ka BP(Fig. 7).Once the rate of sea level rise falls below this constant，there will be surplus sediments after the accommodation space created by sea level rise isfi lled. These redundant sediments can then result in aseaward progradation of the coastal environment. Thedeceleration of sea level rise around 10.6 cal ka BPcorresponds well with sedimentary face change fromupper tidal fl at to salt marsh. Similarly，the accelerationaround ~10.9 cal ka BP is in good agreement withsedimentary face change from supra tidal to upperintertidal fl at. Otherwise，there would not be enoughaccommodation space for the rapid sedimentationduring 10.9–10.6 cal ka BP.
Figure 8 shows a comparison between data fromCJK10 and previous data from Liu and Milliman(2004)(Fig. 8A，light gray)，Barbados(Peltier and Fairbanks，2006)，and Tahiti(Bard et al.，2010)in alonger time window of 12–9 cal ka BP. Combinedwith AMS- 14C ages，also obtained from inter-subtidalmaterial from Liu and Milliman(2004)，the sea levelrise curve can be approximately reconstructed as thedashed line suggests. The rapid sea level rise(~20 m)during MWP-1B may have been overestimated in Liu and Milliman(2004). The prominent step in MWP-1B，observed in Barbados(Peltier and Fairbanks，2006)，is not apparent in ECS as indicated by theCJK10 records. Differences also exist between theECS RSL and the Tahiti RSL(Bard et al.，2010)，which exhibited no prominent sea level step duringMWP-1B and yields a constant high sedimentationrate of 1.2 cm/ a since 11.4 cal ka BP(Bard et al.，2010).4.4 Depositional evolution offshore of HangzhouBay
Because of the scarcity of age data in unit 1，wewill discuss the evolution of the postglacialsedimentary environment of the continental shelfoffshore of Hangzhou Bay since ~23.2 cal ka BP，which was clearly controlled by deglacial sea levelchange. Before 11.0 cal ka BP，the ECS RSL waslower than -45 m(Fig. 8). Likely because of thetectonic elevation，this study area was subaeriallyexposed and experienced strong weathering before11 cal ka BP(Fig. 9a). A fl uvial terrace without theinfl uence of sea water dominated during 23.2–11 calka BP. Meanwhile，some terrain with low elevation(i.e.，a valley)may have been in fluenced by the sea and changed to a tidal-fl at environment(as suggestedby ZK9 in the subaqueous delta)，or to a tidal riverenvironment(as suggested by HQ98 and CM97 in the paleo-incised valley)around 11.5–11 cal ka BP(Hori et al.，2001b; Liu and Milliman，2010; Wang et al.，2010)(Fig. 10). It is clear that Changjiang Riversediments had not been delivered to this study areabefore ~11 cal ka BP.
The ECS RSL rise from ~45 m to 33 m belowpresent sea level(Fig. 8)occurred between 11–10.2 calka BP. As the sea continued to rise，this study areabegan to be in fluenced by seawater，as suggested bythe extensively preserved foraminifera in unit 3(Fig. 5). The environment changed to a supra tidal fl atin 11 cal ka BP，and ultimately to an upper tidal fl at in10.9 cal ka BP due to a coeval acceleration of sealevelrise. The high accumulation at core depths16.25–5.2 m(elevation -41.55 m to -30.5 m，Fig. 7)was the result of suffi cient accommodation spacecreated by this sea level rise acceleration and theabundant sediment supply because of the warm and wet climate(Dykoski et al.，2005; Shao et al.，2006).A salt marsh formed at 10.6 cal ka BP because of thedeceleration of the sea-level rise. The heavy mineralassemblage of the tidal fl at sediments，mainlyauthigenic pyrite and limonite(Fig. 6)，is similar to that of small semi-enclosed bays and tidal flats ofisl and s adjacent to the Zhejiang coast(Ma，1989).Studies of such modern sedimentary environmentsshow that the hydrodynamic energy is low，with littleimpact by waves，tides，and alongshore currents.Sediments with relatively high organic content aremainly supplied by small coastal rivers and creeks(Ma，1989). Similarly，the high sedimentation rateduring 11–10.2 cal ka BP in CJK10 was mainlycontributed by terrigenous sediment from localcoastal rivers(Figs.3，7). The organic-rich terrigenousmaterial boosts the growth and maintenance of tidal fl at plants，which helps trap and bind the substantialfl uvial sediments from local rivers. This highsedimentation rate was unfavorable to the oxidationof organic material and as a result contributed to arelatively high content of authigenic minerals(Fig. 6)(Rothwell，1989).
During 10.2–9.4 cal ka BP，the sea level rose at astable rate of ~1.2 cm/ a(Fig. 8). This rate was lowerthan the sediment supply rate of ~1.6 cm/a. We cantherefore conclude that some salt marsh or supra tidalfl at sediments would have been deposited during10.2–9.4 cal ka BP. Subsequently，the sea level rose to ~15–10 m below present level between ~9–8 cal kaBP. The sediment supply rate was much lower thanthe rate of sea level rise. If the Changjiang sedimentsupply to this study area was insuffi cient，thesediments deposited during 10.2–9.4 cal ka BP weremost likely eroded by increased estuary hydrodynamicenergy，such as tidal currents and wave action. Sucherosion phenomena were also observed in core ZK9(Fig. 9).
Large volumes of Changjiang River sediment weredeposited in the subaqueous delta and paleo-incisedvalley during ~10–8 cal ka BP indicated by the highaccumulation rates in ZK9，HQ98，and CM97 cores(shaded region in Fig. 9b，and Fig. 10)(Hori et al.，2002b; Hori and Saito，2007; Wang et al.，2010).During ~8–7 ka，most of the Changjiang Riversediments went into initiating the formation of the Changjiang River delta(Stanley and Warne，1994;Chen et al.，2000; Hori et al.，2002b; Hori and Saito，2007). Later，during ~7–4 ka，most of the ChangjiangRiver sediment became trapped in the paleo-incisedvalley of the Changjiang River(Wang et al.，2008b)(shaded section in Fig. 9c，and Fig. 10). After theincised valley had been fi lled，the sediments derivedfrom the Changjiang River began to be deposited onthe subaqueous delta from 5.9 cal ka BP(Wang et al.，2010). We can therefore conclude that the southwardtransport of the Changjiang River sediments waslower before 4.3 cal ka BP. The CJK10 site was still atide-dominated shelf environment from 9.4–9.2 cal kaBP to 4.3 cal ka BP(Fig. 9b and c). The longdepositional hiatus detected in the study area wasmost likely related to erosion in a tide-dominatedshelf environment.
The content of magnetite，ilmenite，and mica in the Changjiang sediments is relatively high，as has alsobeen found in previous studies(Lü and Yan，1981; He，1991). The higher content of ilmenite，magnetite，and mica in unit 1 than that in the other units may indicatethe infl uence of the Changjiang River sediments(Fig. 6). Long distance transport of the sedimentsresulted in ilmenite corrosion and magnetite oxidation.We can therefore conclude that a large amount ofsediment derived from the Changjiang River reachedthe southern study area after 4.3 cal ka BP，most likelyafter in filling the paleo-incised valley(Fig. 9d). Thelocal topography，namely archipelagos offshore ofHangzhou Bay，may have also in fluenced themovement of the Changjiang River sediments into thearea of core CJK10 and to the south，which occurredlater than the formation of the subaqueous delta.4.5 Implications for the Changjiang alongshorecurrent
The offshore area of Hangzhou Bay was dominatedby a salt marsh or a supra tidal fl at environment until9.4 cal ka BP. We can therefore conclude that the timewhen the Changjiang alongshore current crossed theHangzhou Bay to form the mud wedge on the innershelf of the ECS was later than 9.4 cal ka BP. If the Changjiang alongshore current exited before 9.4 calka BP，its pathway was to the west of its presentlocation and deeper than the 40–50 m isobath. The time of formation of the Changjiang alongshorecurrent in the study area was later than that of theestuary environment.
Sediments from the Changjiang River，thesubaqueous delta，and this study area were transportedsouth by the Changjiang alongshore current and contributed to the ECS inner shelf mud wedge. Thecirculation and strength of the Changjiang alongshorecurrent play an important role in sediment dispersal.Depositional environments and accumulation rates inthe southern(ECS inner shelf) and the northern(subaqueous delta，offshore of Hangzhou Bay)depocenters provide insight on how to reconstruct the Changjiang alongshore current(Fig. 1).
During ~10–4 ka，most of the Changjiang Riversediment became trapped in the paleo-incised valley and the subaqueous delta(Fig. 9b and c). Lowsedimentation rates during 9.4–7.5 cal ka BP at CJK10 and over the inner shelf mud wedge area，indicated byrecords from EC2005(<0.1 cm/ a) and cores MD06-3039 and 3040(~0.125 cm/ a)(Wang et al.，2008a; Xu et al.，2009; Zheng et al.，2010)，suggest a relativelyweak Changjiang alongshore current. The sedimentaryhiatus at the northern depocenter and the deposition atthe southern depocenter(~0.19–0.68 cm/ a)during~7.5–4 cal ka BP suggest an increase in the Changjiangalongshore current. The northern depocenter isinferred to have experienced erosion since the middleHolocene sea-level highst and due to the Changjiangalongshore current，as indicated by the sedimentaryhiatus present in cores CJK10 and ZK9.
The Changjiang River sediment deposition atCJK10 since 4.3 cal ka BP may be related to either theincreased southward transport of Changjiang Riversediments because of the filling of the paleo-incisedvalley，or to an enhancement of the Changjiangalongshore current.5 CONCLUSION
(1)For the past 23.2 cal ka BP，three depositional systems have dominated the continental shelf offshoreof Hangzhou Bay. A fl uvial terrace environmentdominated during 23.2–11.0 cal ka BP; supra to uppertidal flats to salt marsh during 11.0–10.2 cal ka BP; and shallow marine environment from 4.3 cal ka BPto present，separated by an episode of erosion during10.2–4.3 cal ka BP. The changeover between theseenvironments was mainly in fluenced by postglacialsea level fl uctuations.
(2)ECS RSL around 11.0 cal ka BP wasapproximately -45 m below present sea level，and rose from -44 m to -33.0 m during 10.9–10.2 cal kaBP，with an average rate of 1.6 cm/a. The rate of sealevel rise was variable; relatively high during 10.9–10.6 cal ka BP(2.1 cm/ a)，and lower since 10.6 cal kaBP(1.2 cm/ a).
(3)The CJK10 site was a tide-dominated shelfenvironment from 9.2–9.4 cal ka BP to 4.3 cal ka BP.From ~4.3 cal ka BP，a large amount of sediment fromthe Changjiang River was deposited on the continentalshelf of Hangzhou Bay and also transportedsouthward.
(4)The Changjiang alongshore current crossed theHangzhou Bay to form the mud wedge on the innershelf of the ECS later than 9.4 cal ka BP. Thedepositional hiatus at CJK10 was caused by the Changjiang alongshore current，which was relativelyweak during 9.4–7.5 cal ka BP and increased during~7.5–4 cal ka BP.6 ACKNOWLEDGMENT
We would like to thank the R/V Kan 407 for theirhelp with sampling on board，and the NOSAMSFacility at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institutionfor the AMS 14C measurements.
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